Trauma and psychological and psycho-social issues

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Long-Term Cognitive Correlates of Exposure to Trauma: Evidence From Rwanda

This research paper increasingly shows links between trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and cognitive functioning. We know relatively little about the long-term cognitive correlates of exposure to trauma, especially in civilian populations exposed to war and political violence. This paper’s goal was to examine short-term memory (STM) and executive function 20 years after the 1994 genocide of the Tutsis in Rwanda.

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A survivor’s dilemma in face of post-traumatic stress syndrome

A 52-year-old survivor of the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi says after losing most of her family members, her life made a turn for the worse. Nonetheless, her journey after survival is still a heart wrenching one. The dark memories are fresh in her mind and this is making it hard to get over the past. She, however, says that the counselling sessions she attended helped her and now she is slowly recovering.

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Genocide horrors: Overcoming psychological scars

Traumatic memories are prone to haunt the lives of those who tend to survive horrendous events such as the Genocide. The time it takes for these wounds to heal depends on so many factors. With help and counselling, some heal, whereas others, unfortunately, battle with this trauma for the rest of their lives.

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25 years later, how is rape dealt with in Rwanda?

Many young girls and women were victims of rape during the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi. The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR), set up by United Nations Security Council was the first institution to recognise rape as a means of perpetrating genocide.

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Is it always good to talk? The paradoxes of truth-telling by Rwandans youth born of rape committed during the genocide

This article addresses the effects of open dialogue and truth-telling versus silence in global post-conflict endeavors for justice and reconciliation by endorsing practices of either talk or silence, and also by investigating the practical dilemmas faced by Rwandan youth born of rape committed during the 1994 genocide as they find themselves caught in dual cultural imperatives to reveal and to conceal the circumstances of their origins.

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Why younger Rwandans are most affected by trauma

Dr Jean Damascène Iyamuremye, Director of Psychiatric Care Unit, Mental Health Division of the Rwanda Biomedical Centre, argues that among the people with trauma related to the Genocide against the Tutsi, we, unfortunately, find young people who were not born at the time. He referred to it as “transgenerational or intergenerational trauma”.

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Perspectives on Loss and Trauma Assaults on the Self

The author reviews theory and research on a sampling of loss and trauma phenomena. The book also discusses relevant therapy approaches and emphasizes a story-telling approach to coping with major loss. Focusing on many of the most challenging types of human loss and trauma, the book contains scores of stories of people confronting stress and of the courage displayed by so many in the face of profound loss in their personal lives.

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Principles of Healing and Reconciliation in Rwanda

The author explains how people can heal after a devastating period in their lives. He uses Christian principles and makes reference to the Holy Bible. For better understanding, the paper is divided into into smaller topics that include; Recognising the church as God’s agent of healing and reconciliation, overcoming cultural barriers in expressing emotion, finding God in the midst of suffering, the need to hear and be heard, discovering Jesus as the pain bearer, discovering Jesus as redeemer, understanding real forgiveness, exploring God’s way of dealing with ethnic conflict. Towards the end he shares the principles of healing that he used in South Africa during seminars he was invited to.

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Community based sociotherapy in Rwanda: healing a post-violent conflict society

This article highlights the impact community based sociotherapy has had among its beneficiaries. Participants have been able to alleviate trauma by finding a space for sharing their hurting memories and wounded emotions. Raped women have been given the opportunity to talk about what has happened to them with individuals who care. Through this approach, affected Rwandans have been able to move forward and give pardon to their abusers.

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The Rape Recovery Handbook: Step-by-Step Help for Survivors of Sexual Assault

If you are a survivor of sexual assault, you may be suffering from symptoms of depression, substance abuse, an eating disorder, panic and anxiety, or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This book provides an effective framework in which you can heal. The author helps victims acknowledge and learn to manage the emotional pain caused by the trauma of sexual assault, trauma expert Aphrodite Matsakis offers help for coping with the reality of this experience and dealing with the aftermath of conflicting and debilitating feelings.

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Trust After Trauma: A Guide to Relationships for Survivors and Those Who Love Them

Trauma survivors are often dismayed to find that traumatic events not only shatter their internal sense of well-being, but also leave them withdrawn or isolated. In this book, psychologist Aphrodite Matsakis guides survivors through a process of strengthening existing bonds, building new ones, and ending self-perpetuating cycles of withdrawal and isolation. Step-by-step exercises help you learn how to manage emotions, handle unresolved issues, accept realistic limitations, and find ways to make your relationships a context for healing.

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Trauma and Recovery: The aftermath of violence — from domestic abuse to political terror

The book brings a new level of understanding to a set of problems usually considered individually. Herman draws on her own cutting-edge research in domestic violence as well as on the vast literature of combat veterans and victims of political terror, to show the parallels between private terrors such as rape and public traumas such as terrorism. The book puts individual experience in a broader political frame, arguing that psychological trauma can be understood only in a social context.

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Regarding the Pain of Others

Susan explores the subject of visual representations of war and violence in our culture today. How does the spectacle of the sufferings of others (via television or newsprint) affect us? Are viewers inured–or incited–to violence by the depiction of cruelty? In Regarding the Pain of Others, Susan Sontag takes a fresh look at the representation of atrocity–from Goya’s The Disasters of War to photographs of the American Civil War, lynchings of blacks in the South, and the Nazi death camps, to contemporary horrific images of Bosnia, Sierra Leone, Rwanda, Israel and Palestine, and New York City on September 11, 2001.

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Exploring secondary traumatic stress experienced by nurses working in mental health service in Rwanda

It has been suggested that a unique feature of some mental health nurses’ work is exposure through their role as therapists to clients’ descriptions of, and reactions to, trauma, and that these experiences may actually indirectly cause distress and traumatization to the nurse. This proposed phenomenon has been termed “secondary traumatic stress”. The focus of this paper is to explore secondary traumatic stress experienced by nurses working in mental health services in Rwanda. The research was conducted in Ndera Psychiatric Hospital.

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The development of an intervention model to manage secondary traumatic stress in mental health workers in Rwanda

It was previously established that mental health workers in Rwanda experience secondary traumatic stress when working with trauma survivors. The effects of secondary traumatic stress can be serious and permanent in mental health workers when working with traumatized clients. This study aimed to explore STS and to develop an intervention model to manage secondary traumatic stress in mental health workers in Kigali, Rwanda.

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