Rwandan author and researcher Dr Jean Paul Kimonyo launched his latest book, ‘Transforming Rwanda: Challenges on the road to reconstruction. The book provides extensive insights into the transformation of Rwanda, right from the 1959 pogroms when thousands fled the country up, through the post-Genocide reconstruction of the last two-and-a-half decades.
In an interview with Stanford GSB Professor Renee Bowen, President Paul Kagame discusses leading Rwanda through economic and social growth over the 20 years since the 1994 genocide.
The article is on a conversation that President Paul Kagame had with Foreign Affairs managing editor Jonathan Tepperman in late February 2014. The discussion was on Rwanda’s success and the dark side that came with it: opposition politicians have been jailed or killed under mysterious circumstances, journalists complain of harassment, and Kigali has been regularly criticized for meddling in neighbouring Congo’s long-running civil war.
Nearly two decades after Rwanda’s horrific genocide, the country has been transformed. High rises are going up in the capital city of Kigali; a newly established stock exchange is attracting investors; and the economy is transitioning from subsistence agriculture to information and communication technology. In Rwanda, Inc. they look at the key factors that allowed this tiny country to beat the odds―including Rwanda’s efforts to encourage private sector development and foster entrepreneurship, and how Kagame’s unique leadership approach led to gains in health, education, and food sustainability.
The book takes the reader through a sweeping panorama of Rwanda’s history, from its recent past as a near-failed state to its present as a beacon of hope and successful innovations. Rwanda’s rise from the ashes detailed in this book is the culmination of a visionary and laborious process of rebuilding a nation from the brink of collapse. It is also a story of reconciling a people that had been taught to see each other as enemies. It concludes that the achievements have been possible because the RPF’s development agenda built on power-sharing, consensus-building, gender equality and the primacy of security.
Reconstruction from conflict is a complex and demanding task, and a major challenge for post-conflict countries as well as the international community. This book provides an insight into some of the main issues that arise in post-conflict economic and social reconstruction, and offers examples of what works, and what does not. It will be of interest to all working on economic and social reconstruction in post-conflict countries, as well as those working on peace and development.
To the uninitiated, post-genocide Rwanda is wrapped in a veil of contradictions. Take the upcoming elections. Two decades ago, the consensus was that Rwanda was a failed state. Today, the country is rated among the fastest developing economies in the world, cementing its reputation as a business-friendly safe space for investment. This transformation can only be credited to good leadership and the resilience and innovation of the Rwandan people.
The Rwanda Patriotic Front (RPF) Inkotanyi presidential candidate Paul Kagame told thousands of supporters in Kirehe district during the campaign period that none should play with any achievements the country has made. “Don’t touch our security, don’t touch our unity, don’t touch development of a Rwandan women” he said amidst applause. He promised his supporters that more projects are in the making to improve the wellbeing of Rwandans.
Vision 2020 Umurenge Programme is a large-scale social protection programme which is Government owned and led. It was conceived during a high-level leadership retreat in February 2007 as a response to worrying poverty trends in the country. It is a flagship programme of the Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy (EDPRS) 2008 – 2012. The VUP goal is to contribute to the national target to reduce extreme income poverty from 36.9% in 2005/6 to 24.0% in 2012. Its purpose is to accelerate the reduction of extreme poverty in VUP target sectors.
This dissertation attempts to investigate the socio-economic impacts of the genocide on current development in Rwanda using primary and secondary data obtained from fieldwork undertaken in Cyangugu and Butare towns. The conceptual basis for the study was the geography of conflict. The general conclusion reached was that the causes and consequences of the Rwandan genocide are multidimensional.
Girinka “one cow per poor family” program has been implemented in Rwanda since 2006 for poverty and child malnutrition reduction. Every poor family receives one dairy cow and the program encourages zero-grazing to combat climate change. This study was carried out to assess the impact of the Girinka program on its beneficiaries’ livelihoods and food security in the Bugesera District of Rwanda and its potential contribution to climate resilience.
Rwanda, in its transition phase since 1994, has had the support of major international development organizations, including the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the United Nations Development Program, and other development organizations. The aim of this support is to promote Rwandan agriculture in which 45 percent of the Rwandan GDP and 90 percent of employment share originate. This study analyzes the impact of agricultural assistance afforded by the DAP and socioeconomic characteristics of households on agricultural production in Gikongoro province.
The researcher’s contribution through this research consisted in identifying what the impact of national unity has had on sustainable development in Rwanda after seven years in power of the so-called “government of national unity”. Rwandan politicians, the ordinary population or friends of Rwandans together should stand up to fight for building and consolidating the national unity of Rwanda. This research is aimed to identify and to clarify what impact national unity in Rwanda has had on sustainable development, after the genocide against the Tutsi in1994.
This dissertation attempts to investigate the socio-economic impacts of the genocide on current development in Rwanda using primary and secondary data obtained from fieldwork undertaken in Cyangugu and Rutare Towns. The conceptual basis for the study is the geography of conflict. The general conclusion reached was that the causes and consequences of the Rwandan genocide are multidimensional.
The extension of just war theory to include jus post bellum – with its emphasis on rules designed to end war justly – connects closely to debates surrounding transitional justice. Whereas jus post bellum concerns ending conflict in a just manner and establishing a durable peace through the law, transitional justice entails both legal and nonlegal methods for addressing past harm and securing a less aggressive future. This paper looks at the theory and practice of these two concepts in Central Africa.
The objective of the paper on which this note is based is to provide a measure of the economic cost of the Rwanda Genocide using a technique for the identification and correction of outliers in time series. Specifically, the detection of an outlier in the GDP per capita time series that can be traced to the conflict allows us to estimate the GDP losses associated with the Genocide.
The aim of the study was to assess how Rwanda has fared with respect to economic transformation over the past 30 years and suggest recommendations for accelerating its progress.
IMIHIGO is used in Rwanda to design performance management contracts signed at the level of all public institutions. At the end of every fiscal year, a performance evaluation is also conducted by independent evaluators with the coordination of the Prime Minister’s Office to assess the performance achieved against Imihigo targets. The 2014/15 Imihigo evaluation intends to shed more light on the extent to which Imihigo are producing transformative outcomes as stated in the national development frameworks.
The paper argues that international development aid agencies have failed adequately to address the rights and needs of genocide survivors in Rwanda. It illustrates that genocide survivors remain impoverished and marginalised, and that development aid agencies only tangentially, if at all, acknowledge their vulnerability and take steps to empower them to realise their rights. It provides examples of aid programmes that are reaching genocide survivors and urges development aid agencies in Rwanda to design and implement programmes explicitly for genocide survivors.
This book documents how some leaders do bring about remarkable reconstruction of their countries using foreign aid, but many other post-conflict leaders fail to do so. Offering a global argument that is the first of its kind, Desha Girod explains that post-conflict leaders are more likely to invest aid in reconstruction when they are desperate for income and thus depend on aid that comes with reconstruction strings attached.
The author explains why we need to move beyond “traditional” diplomacy, which often emphasizes top-level leaders and short-term objectives, toward a holistic approach that stresses the multiplicity of peacemakers, long-term perspectives, and the need to create an infrastructure that empowers resources within a society and maximizes contributions from outside. It also explores the dynamics of contemporary conflict and presents an integrated framework for peacebuilding in which structure, process, resources, training, and evaluation are coordinated in an attempt to transform the conflict and effect reconciliation.
In its report released last month, the World Bank has named Rwanda and six other African nations- Côte d’Ivoire, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mali, Senegal and Tanzania- as countries that have exhibited economic resilience in recent past that saw them post annual growth rate above 5.4% in 2015-2017.
The report, dubbed Africa’s Pulse, a bi-annual analysis of the state of African economies conducted by the World Bank, points out that the aforementioned economies registered upswing in economic performance partly on account of strong domestic demand.
This report provides an update on the level of poverty based on 2013/14 Integrated Household Living Conditions Survey (EICV4) focusing on poverty as measured in consumption terms. The report also highlights other trend dimensions of living conditions captured in other surveys that complement and provide a holistic understanding of poverty and living conditions.
The International Criminal Court passed a verdict that 297 victims of a 2003 attack on a Congolese village should receive individual and collective reparations for the crimes of war committed by former Congolese militia leader Germain Katanga that they survived. They were awarded a compensation of $250 per victim, as well as collective reparations to help the community in the form of housing, income generating activities, education, and psychological support.
In this series of remarkable and thought-provoking essays, the contributors shed light on the process of peacebuilding. Collectively, they demonstrate that if efforts to restore peace in war-torn societies are to be successful, such efforts must be wide in scope, involving security and political issues, as well as economic development and socio-psychological reconciliation. Additionally, they must be extended over long periods of time and, above all else, anchored in the local community.
This viewpoint argues that international development aid agencies have failed adequately to address the rights and needs of genocide survivors in Rwanda. It illustrates that genocide survivors remain impoverished and marginalised, and that development aid agencies only tangentially, if at all, acknowledge their vulnerability and take steps to empower them to realise their rights. It provides examples of aid programmes that are reaching genocide survivors and urges development aid agencies in Rwanda to design and implement programmes explicitly for genocide survivors.
In the aftermath of the 1994 tragic situations faced by Rwanda, labor sector was one of the most affected segments of the national life. Major challenges included among others, limited employment opportunities leading to high unemployment and underemployment levels, especially for the youth. Thus, the paper seeks to assess Rwanda’s employment policies by analyzing legal and institutional frameworks and draw recommendations on how to address identified challenges
Rwanda’s parliament has nearly equal representation of men and women in its lower house which is a unique feature considering women constitute only 16.6% of parliaments worldwide. This paper examines the effect of gender on parliamentarians’ attitudes, and investigates the impact of women parliamentarians on policies related to children and families, specifically with regard to the development of legislation, oversight of the executive, and influence on the national budget.
Economic transformation is a process involving increases in productivity, technological capability, economic diversification, and international competitiveness that support rapid, sustained and shared growth in employment and incomes of the population over time. This study aims at bringing the subject of structural economic transformation back into the policy agenda of Africa.
This research study was commissioned in a bid to quantitatively and qualitatively assess the outcome of investments that have been continuously made by the Government of Rwanda to support the reintegration process of ex-genocide prisoners to normal life and back to their communities for more than a decade.
This paper studies the impact of the Rwandan genocide in 1994 on economic development using the synthetic control method. We find a 58 percent decrease in GDP in 1994, and strong evidence that Rwanda’s economy was then catching up with the estimated counterfactual GDP it would have had in the absence of the genocide, with the gap closing after 17 years. The negative effects were more pronounced in the industry and service sectors than in agriculture.
Civil war and genocide in the 1990-2000 period in Rwanda have had differential economic impacts on the country’s provinces. The reasons for this are the death toll of the genocide, the location of battles, the waves of migration and the local resurgence of war. This research therefore seeks to understand the convergence between provinces following the conflict shocks, and the violent conflicts that have led to the dynamics of household poverty in Rwanda.
The purpose of the present Rwanda Reconciliation Barometer (2015) was to track the current status of reconciliation in Rwanda through citizens’ experiences and opinions, while identifying key favorable factors and challenges in this regard. The assessment focused on: understanding the past, present and envisioning the future; citizenship and identity; political culture; security and wellbeing; justice, fairness and rights; and social cohesion.
Access to finance is critical for sustainable economic growth and social development for any human society. In Rwanda, 65.6% of women are financially underserved according to World Bank in 2012. This paper therefore seeks to find out the factors that govern access to finance to women in Rwanda and the strategies best fit towards the decrease of financial exclusion.
This paper focuses on the case of Rwanda to illustrate the importance of looking beyond ‘robust’ cross-country averages examining the link between growth, poverty, redistribution and conflict. It argues how policy making in Rwanda – as formulated by the Poverty Reduction Strategy – could provide more efficient pathways towards poverty reduction by combining economic growth with pro-poor redistribution.