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Societal Healing Baseline

The Societal Healing and Participatory Governance for Peace in Rwanda programme is a four-year programme funded by Sida and implemented by Never Again Rwanda and Interpeace. The programme, which commenced on 1 January 2015, has a vision to contribute to a peaceful and inclusive Rwandan Society, enabled to overcome the wounds of the past and peacefully manage conflicts and diversity as well as empowered to influence programmes and policies responsive to citizens’ priorities.

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Governing with and for Citizens : Lessons from a post-genocide Rwanda

Never Again Rwanda (NAR) is a Peacebuilding and social justice organization. It was created in the aftermath of the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi in order to mitigate the consequences of the genocide. NAR aims to empower Rwandans and give them opportunities to become active citizens and ultimately become agents of positive change and work together towards sustainable peace and development.

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Youth urged to reflect on the significance of reading on nation-building

As we commemorate 25 years of the Genocide against the Tutsi, youth were advised to embrace a reading culture because books can inspire, heal, empower and bring hope to a nation. This message was conveyed during the “13th edition of reading for change,” that was held at the Kigali Public Library, Kacyiru. The event was held under the theme, ‘Literature’s role in peacebuilding and unity’ with an aim of stirring a reading culture among the young generation.

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Teachers as agents of change:Promoting peace building and social cohesion in schools in Rwanda

Education is seen to play a crucial role in the reconstruction of post-conflict countries, particularly in transforming people’s mindsets and rebuilding social relations. In this regard, teachers are often perceived as key agents to bring about this transformative change through their role as agents of peace. This paper seeks to understand how teachers are positioned to promote peacebuilding and social cohesion in Rwandan schools in the aftermath of the 1994 genocide against the Tutsi.

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Engaging teachers in peace building in post-conflict contexts:evaluating education interventions in Rwanda and South Africa

This research paper seeks to answer the question: To what extent does education and peacebuilding interventions in the two countries promote teachers and capacity to build peace and reduce inequalities? The proposed study is aimed at understanding the conditions under which education interventions focused on teachers can promote peace, and mitigate and reduce violence with a view to identifying measures and processes that can increase the effectiveness of such programmes in conflict-affected situations.

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How Rwanda is teaching peace education through Ubumuntu conversations

Throughout the year, Aegis Trust organizes various events to educate the public and visitors from around the world about the genocide and what they can do to help prevent such atrocities in the future. Among their peacebuilding initiatives are the Ubumuntu Conversations held at the memorial’s peace school during the last week of July 2018. Ubumuntu is to be humane: to genuinely care about others, to be generous and kind, to show empathy, to be sympathetic to the plight of others, and to recognize the humanity of others.

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Orchestre Impala: peace-building through music in Rwanda

This study focuses on revival of Orchestre Impala, a popular band from the Habyarimana era of the 1970s-80s. The authors hope that this musical revival signals a politics of cultural healing in Rwanda, and coming to terms with the cultural past. This example shows how popular music can contribute to peace-building in post-genocide Rwanda, and perhaps elsewhere.

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International Impact Event

Speaking on 31st May 2018 at King’s College London, Dr Nicola Palmer, Dr Felix Ndahinda and Dr Richard Benda discuss the impact the two-day conference (Rwandan Perspectives on Post-Conflict Reconstruction and Sustainable Peace: Enhancing Research, Influencing Policy) which had just finished there where Aegis’ funded researchers had made keynote presentations.

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Saving lives in South Sudan

Nicholas Aru Maan – co-founder of the South Sudan Youth, Peace and Development Organisation (SSYPADO) paid a visit to the UK’s National Holocaust Centre, birthplace of the Aegis Trust, and gave an on-camera interview about the life-saving impact of partnership with Aegis. “Aegis Trust and the Kigali Memorial Centre has been the force behind our continued hope for peacebuilding in South Sudan,” Nicholas says, describing how South Sudanese chiefs inspired by Aegis’ work in Rwanda had helped to reduce conflict by organizing young people to take part in education rather than fighting.

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The Arusha Accords and the Failure of International Intervention in Rwanda

This paper highlights the unsuccessful mediation attempts leading up to the Arusha Accords; the successful mediation of the Arusha Accords by a highly skilled Tanzanian diplomat, Ami Mpungwe; and the violence following the breakdown of the Accords after the suspicious death of President Habyarimana. The role of regional organizations and other international actors in the pre-Arusha mediations and the Arusha process itself is analysed. Finally, the author highlights the misperceptions arising from a serious lack of intelligence information and the tragedy of peace-keeping forces whose weak mandate and lack of materiel made them impotent to stem the horrendous violence.

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Post Genocide Peacebuilding, Reconciliation and Reconstruction: A Case of Rwanda

This paper analyses and highlights the factors and root causes of the genocide against the Tutsi in Rwanda. Further, it details the steps taken by the external and internal players to avoid future conflict and the work they are doing in creating a platform for peacebuilding and reconciliation in Rwanda. The author also discusses the role of the government and its institutions in post genocide Rwanda. The strengths and weaknesses of the new constitution of Rwanda after the genocide, and the current challenges confronting Rwanda are included in this paper.

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The role of women in reconciliation and peace building in Rwanda: Ten years after genocide 1994-2004

This study on the role of women in reconciliation and peace building in Rwanda will contributes to critical analysis in understanding the unique potential Rwandan women have and the challenges they face in their endeavours to contribute to national reconciliation and peace building and enable the National Unity and Reconciliation Commission to mainstream gender in its policies, programmes and future activities.

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Violent Conflict and the Transformation of Social Capital: Lessons from Cambodia, Rwanda, Guatemala, and Somalia

Based on a four-country project, this book discusses: changes in social capital due to conditions of conflict; the interaction between social capital and conflict; and methods for civil society, government, and international actors to nurture social capital for conflict prevention rehabilitation and reconciliation measures. The types of conflict experienced, definitions and indicators of social capital, and study conclusions are compared. In the final section, recommendations for social policy and practices emerging from these studies are presented.

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Planting the Tree of Peace Among Enemies

This article is a report on some of the workshops held by the Alternatives to Violence Project, a reconciliation effort based on restorative justice practices that operates in Africa to heal communities affected by genocide and civil instability. These workshops sought to bring together residents of two towns, one on the border of the Democratic Republic of Congo and the other on the border of Rwanda, with a historically complicated and adversarial past.

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Peacebuilding: A Field Guide

Part of the ongoing search for sustainable peace, this handbook highlights the invaluable contributions of people working in the field. The authors clarify how fieldworkers fit into the overall peacebuilding process, providing details of the most effective practices and offering guidelines for preparing for the field.

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Disarmament and reconciliation Rwanda’s concerns

The main aim of this paper is to try and bring to the fore the complexities behind the conflict in Rwanda with a focus on the need to link disarmament to the entire post-conflict confidence building and reconciliation process now underway. The paper first assesses the impact of the 1994 genocide and then reviews the various post conflict approaches currently being implemented in Rwanda. It concludes by proposing that there is a need to make these structures compatible with disarmament as prevention against possible recurrence of the conflict.

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The Transformation of Peace

This book examines the transformation of the discourse and praxis of peace, from its early beginnings in the literature on war and power, to the development of intellectual and theoretical discourses of peace, contrasting this with the development of practical approaches to peace, and examining the intellectual and policy evolution regarding peace.

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Call for concerted efforts to prevent wars in African cities

African countries should renew their commitment and ensure that wars and armed conflicts in cities and elsewhere are minimised if the continent is to develop faster. The call was made yesterday during a regional conference in Kigali to discuss the challenges and humanitarian consequences of a growing phenomenon of urban armed conflict around the globe.

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UN sanctions ‘formidable instrument for global peace and security,’ Security Council told

United Nations Security Council sanctions are “a formidable instrument for global peace and security,” a senior UN political official said, stressing that these measures, when implemented effectively, can contribute to preventing conflict, countering terrorism and constraining the proliferation of nuclear weapons. “Sanctions are not an end in themselves. At their most effective, sanctions should contribute to a comprehensive political strategy, working in tandem with other Charter-based instruments, to prevent and peacefully resolve conflicts,” said Assistant Secretary-General for Political Affairs Tayé-Brook Zerihoun.

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UN and AU commit to enhancing African peace and security

The African Union and United Nations are working towards enhancing African peace and security capabilities as part of a shared interest in solving African conflicts. Ambassador Smail Chergui, Commissioner for Peace and Security to the United Nations Security Council (UNSC), told the Council that the African Union is an indispensable partner in promoting peace and security in Africa. “Over the last decade, the African Union has mandated or authorized the deployment of more than 100 000 uniformed and civilian personnel, many of whom are deployed in some of the most high risk and volatile environments.”

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Youth vital in peacebuilding

The United Nations (UN) has stressed its recognition that young people’s inclusion in the peace and security agenda in development is a key to promoting sustainable development and building peace. With a theme of “Youth Building Peace”, International Youth Day 2017 celebrated young people’s contributions to conflict prevention and transformation of societies for social justice and sustainable peace. The UN advocates to all nations to accelerate attainment of the Sustainable Development Goals, by fostering peaceful and inclusive societies.

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Establishing a conflict resolution and mediation centre in Kigali, Rwanda

Conflict is an inevitable part of our daily lives, resulting from complex and often litigious society. Effective alternatives are highly needed to deal with conflicts. This study was designed to seek how to establish a conflict resolution and mediation centre in Kigali with the aim of contributing to the search of peaceful and durable solutions to conflicts occurring between individual and community members in Kigali. The study examined the nature, causes, extent and consequences of conflicts in Kigali and the ways to deal with them.

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Women and peace building : a contextual approach to the Fourth Gospel and its challenge to women in Post Genocide Rwanda

This work is a contextual study of five selected biblical texts from the Fourth Gospel: John 2:1-12 and John 19:25-29; John 4:1-42; John 11:1-12:1-11 and John 18:15-17. Its aim is to read the selected texts with a Rwandan woman’s eyes, focusing on her peacemaking role and her potential as an agent of reconciliation. It is motivated by the context of the Rwandan situation during and after the catastrophic genocide of 1994. This work seeks to open the eyes of Rwandan women toward the role of peacemaking and unity-building by using a combined approach to conflict resolution; application of some theories in the domain of sociology, as well as the contextual biblical approach.

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Post conflict reconstruction and peacebuilding in Africa’s Great Lakes Region : the role of transitional justice

The Great Lakes region in Africa has been a region prone to conflict for well over four decades. The region is made up of countries that have Lake Tanganyika and Lake Victoria passing within their territories, they are: Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Kenya, Republic of Tanzania and Rwanda. It is evident that the efforts of achieving sustainable peace for each states in that region has been compromised by factors external to their territory therefore regional factors.

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An Analysis of Umuganda: the policy and practice of community work in Rwanda

This thesis analyses the policy and traditional practice of umuganda, which is a Rwandan word for community work. The main purpose of the thesis is to investigate how to enhance the efficiency of the policy and practice of umuganda in fostering development and peace in Rwanda. The study focuses on how the practice of umuganda has been understood and implemented throughout the historical period of Rwanda, namely, the pre-colonial, colonial, post-colonial periods until the genocide and then the post-genocide period.

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The Rwandan process of unity and reconciliation : its potential for building sustainable peace

This study is an evaluation of the Rwandan unity and reconciliation process and was undertaken to assess whether it possesses the potential for building sustainable peace in the country. Generally, the study showed that the process of unity and reconciliation in Rwanda has the potential to succeed since high governing leaders are engaged to restore unity and reconciliation in the country. Political will, the study revealed, is an essential ingredient for sustainable peace.

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Peacebuilding in Post-Genocide Rwanda: The Role of Cooperatives in the Restoration of Interpersonal Relationships

This thesis is aimed at contributing to the lack of knowledge in the field of peacebuilding from below, notably regarding the mechanisms to be used in order to overcome the painful past between conflicting parties. The study makes this contribution through an empirically based exploration of the relational outcomes resulting from conflicting parties’ memberships of the same cooperative organization after the 1994 genocide in Rwanda.

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The Constant Quest For Solutions Through Dialogue and Consensus in Rwanda

In line with article 9 of the Constitution, the Senate carried out a study designed to find out how Rwandans understand the principle of Dialogue and Consensus, and whether tools put in place to promote and create an enabling environment for Dialogue and Consensus Frameworks are achieving their objectives. The research on Dialogue and Consensus focused on mechanisms such as Gacaca, Abunzi, Umuganda, Community Development Committees, National Women Council, National Youth Council, Itorero, Girinka, Ubudehe, Community Juries, and advisory councils.

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Rwanda: The Perils of Peacemaking

Since the end of the cold war, the international community has taken an active role in seeking to resolve civil conflicts around the globe. However, in countries like Rwanda and Angola, many more lives were lost during civil conflicts after the peace agreements failed than the years of war that preceded them. This paper looks at peace agreements that are ultimate indictment of a peacemaking process undermined by tragically mistaken assumptions.

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Storytelling as a way to work through intractable conflicts: The German-Jewish experience and its relevance to the Palestinian-Israeli context

The major aim of this article is to demonstrate how storytelling can be used to work through intractable conflicts in intergroup activities. It begins by defining the concept of working-through, then widening it to apply to traumatic social events. To Reflect and Trust (TRT) group, in which the storytelling technique was first used, is discussed and we see how it was later applied in a year-long Jewish-Palestinian student workshop held at Ben Gurion University in 2000-2001.

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Courts in Conflict: Interpreting the Layers of Justice in Post-Genocide Rwanda

Transitional justice initiatives in post-genocide Rwanda include the United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR), and national and local transitional justice initiatives by the Rwandan government. More than two decades later, it is important to take stock of the lessons learned through empirical research which is relevant for improving the understanding of post-conflict societies and the impact of transitional justice mechanisms.

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Bringing Them All Back Home: The Challenges of DDR and Transitional Justice in Contexts of Displacement in Rwanda and Uganda

This article engages with recent attempts to bridge the apparent divide between disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) and transitional justice, and their implications for post-conflict environments characterized by large-scale displacement. It highlights these general problems by examining the cases of Rwanda and Uganda, neighbouring countries recovering from continuing cycles of mass conflict and forced displacement over the last two decades.

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Faith & Reconciliation: A Study of Christian Forgiveness in Post-Genocide Rwanda

This paper assesses the reality of the Church’s influence in the genocide and in the overall reconciliation effort, using the theological foundations upon which the reconciliation movement is founded. It also looks at how faith-based reconciliatory efforts are influenced by Rwanda’s past and by the larger global Christian community and will evaluate how best to focus those influences into constructive solutions for the country.

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Supporting the Post – Genocide Transition in Rwanda The Role of the International Community

The study concentrates on international assistance after the 1994 genocide when the victory of the Rwandan Patriotic Army (RPA) ended a months-long period of ethnic killings that took the lives of approximately 1,000,000 people, predominantly Tutsi but also Hutu. The report traces the main political developments in the subsequent “transition” period (1994-2003) and analyzes the impact of international assistance on the creation of a civil society as well as governmental electoral, human rights, and media organizations in Rwanda.

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Failed aid: how development agencies are neglecting and marginalising Rwandan genocide survivors

The paper argues that international development aid agencies have failed adequately to address the rights and needs of genocide survivors in Rwanda. It illustrates that genocide survivors remain impoverished and marginalised, and that development aid agencies only tangentially, if at all, acknowledge their vulnerability and take steps to empower them to realise their rights. It provides examples of aid programmes that are reaching genocide survivors and urges development aid agencies in Rwanda to design and implement programmes explicitly for genocide survivors.

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Healing Invisible Wounds: Paths to Hope and Recovery in a Violent World

This book reveals how in every society we have to move away from viewing trauma survivors as “broken people” and “outcasts” to seeing them as courageous people actively contributing to larger social goals. When violence occurs, there is damage not only to individuals but to entire societies, and to the world. Through the journey of self-healing that survivors make, they enable the rest of us not only as individuals but as entire communities to recover from injury in a violent world.

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The Dynamics of Conflict: A Guide to Engagement and Intervention

The book weaves theory and practice together with real-world examples—whether about warring nations or a family dispute—to help readers better understand both the fundamentals and nuances involved in working in the conflict arena. It serves the novice practitioner with guideposts, yet opens ever new and exciting pathways for the seasoned conflict specialist.

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Little Book of Strategic Peacebuilding: A Vision And Framework For Peace With Justice

The author sets forth paths to realities where there are no wars, no poverty, no more racism, no community disputes, no office tensions, no marital skirmishes. She foresees justpeace—a sustainable state of affairs because it is a peace which insists on justice. Schirch singles out four critical actions that must be undertaken if peace is to take root at any level) — 1.) waging conflict nonviolently; 2.) reducing direct violence; 3.) transforming relationships; and 4.) building capacity.

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Building Peace: Sustainable Reconciliation in Divided Societies

The author explains why we need to move beyond “traditional” diplomacy, which often emphasizes top-level leaders and short-term objectives, toward a holistic approach that stresses the multiplicity of peacemakers, long-term perspectives, and the need to create an infrastructure that empowers resources within a society and maximizes contributions from outside. It also explores the dynamics of contemporary conflict and presents an integrated framework for peacebuilding in which structure, process, resources, training, and evaluation are coordinated in an attempt to transform the conflict and effect reconciliation.

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Post-Genocidal Reconciliation: Building Peace in Rwanda and Burundi

This report results from a fact-finding mission by the Institute’s (USIP) Coordinator for Africa Activities and an Executive Fellow to the Great Lakes during July 1999. Discussions were held with over 200 government and civil society leaders in the Great Lakes, OAU officials, UN representatives, U.S. and European aid and diplomatic officials, and international NGO employees.

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Empower people to counter violent extremism – First Lady

During the 4th World Forum on Intercultural Dialogue High Level Meeting held in Baku, Azerbaijan, the First Lady of Rwanda addressed the topic of “Countering Violent Extremism through Girls’ Education.” She said that empowering citizens irrespective of gender, race, religion and other barriers will help in countering violent extremism in the world.

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UNESCO boss backs Rwanda’s quest to include Genocide memorials on World Heritage list

The Director General of UNESCO, Irina Bokova visited the Kigali Genocide Memorial on 10 May 2017. Rwanda had earlier on requested that Kigali Genocide Memorial Centre in Gisozi, Ntarama Genocide Memorial in Bugesera District, Murambi Genocide Memorial in Nyamagabe District, and Bisesero Genocide Memorial in Karongi District be included in the UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Irina noted that this very much needed in order to educate the world about the country’s history which can help prevent similar atrocities worldwide.

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Akello: From war came music of hope

Jackie Akello is a singer from Uganda. She resorted to music after being affected by the Lord’s Resistance Army war; which saw her lose her ancestral home and a number of relatives. Through music, she shares her story and preaches reconciliation, hope and peace.

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Peace monitors call for end to hostilities in South Sudan

Ceasefire monitors in South Sudan have called upon warring factions to immediately end hostilities as famine and economic hardships continue to ravage the war-torn country. Ethiopian Major-General Molla Hailemariam, who heads the internationally backed ceasefire monitoring team, raised concerns about the clashes between government forces and rebels in the insurgent-controlled Upper Nile and some parts in Equatoria that in the end affect civilians.

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Kagame meets AU Peace and Security Council

Members of the Peace and Security Council (PSC) of the African Union who paid a courtesy call at Village Urugwiro in Kigali. They were welcomed by President Paul who reminded them to address issues affecting the continent with the right attitude, go ahead with the implementation and to keep the conversation going. They also discussed the ongoing African Union reforms.

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Children of genocidal rape left out in support programmes

During the 1994 genocide against the Tutsi, perpetrators used rape as a weapon. As a result, about 20,000 children were conceived and born the following year. According to policies in place, since they were born after December 31 1994, they are not considered as victims of genocide. The article argues that these children need more support from the government and non-government organisations and policies that address their issues need to be formulated.

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Pope begs forgiveness for church role in Rwanda genocide

Rwandan President Paul Kagame visited the Apostolic Palace on 20th March 2017. The Vatican acknowledged that the church itself bore blame, as well as some Catholic priests and nuns who “succumbed to hatred and violence, betraying their own evangelical mission” by participating in the genocide. Pope Francis asked for forgiveness and sought to create a renewed relationship with the Rwandan government.

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African Universities and Social Reconstruction: What Mission and What Strategies? The Case of the Conflict Management Centre of the National University of Rwanda

This study seeks to answer the following; what do individuals and groups that constitute a community that has suffered from armed conflict think of the strategist that could enable them take action? ; are the sustainable strategies of conflict control and prevention universal or peculiar to a situation? how do individuals and groups contribute to these strategies that are aimed at assisting them regain control of their lives and their communities? ; what are the implications of policy and practical interventions of higher education institutions in public affairs?

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Conflict and Peacebuilding in the African Great Lakes Region

The essays in this book focus on the interlocking conflicts and efforts toward peace in this multidisciplinary volume. These essays present a range of debates and perspectives on the history and politics of conflict, highlighting the complex internal and external sources of both persistent tension and creative peacebuilding. Taken together, they illustrate that no single perspective or approach can adequately capture the dynamics of conflict or offer successful strategies for sustainable peace in the region.

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Durable Peace: Challenges for Peacebuilding in Africa

In this series of remarkable and thought-provoking essays, the contributors shed light on the process of peacebuilding. Collectively, they demonstrate that if efforts to restore peace in war-torn societies are to be successful, such efforts must be wide in scope, involving security and political issues, as well as economic development and socio-psychological reconciliation. Additionally, they must be extended over long periods of time and, above all else, anchored in the local community.

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Justice for Victims: Perspectives on rights, transition and reconciliation

This book focuses on the current study of victims of crime, combining both legal and social-scientific perspectives, articulating both in new directions and questioning whether victims really do have more rights in our modern world. It addresses challenging and new issues in the field of victimology and the study of transitional and restorative justice. As such, it will be of interest to researchers, practitioners and students interested in the fields of victimology, transitional justice, restorative justice and trauma work.

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Women, Religion and Peacebuilding Illuminating the Unseen

This book examines the obstacles and opportunities that women religious peacebuilders face as they navigate both the complex conflicts they are seeking to resolve and the power dynamics in the insti­tutions they must deal with in order to accomplish their goals. It shows how women determined to work for peace have faced these obstacles in ingenious ways—suggesting, by example, ways that religious and secular organiza­tions might better include them in larger peacebuilding campaigns and make those campaigns more effective in ending conflict.

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On the Danger and Necessity of Democratisation: trade-offs between short-term stability and long-term peace in post-genocide Rwanda

This paper argues that ‘the Rwandan government’s reconciliation will need to be accompanied by a process of democratisation if it is to achieve its objective of fostering long-term peace’. The discrepancy between national unity discourse and the lack of effective power-sharing without democracy may well sow the seeds for future ethnic unrest. Therefore democratisation is necessary for reconciliation, despite a potentially inverse effect on short-term stability.

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Genocide, Human Rights, and the Politics of Memorialization: “Hotel Rwanda” and Africa’s World War

The author examines different forms of memorialisation with regards to the events of 1994, particularly focusing on the state-sponsored genocide commemorations of April 2004 and comparing it to Hotel Rwanda, the Hollywood film released in the same year. He investigates their unique distinctions, and their ability to memorialise and raise awareness of the Genocide, as well as the consequences of such memorials.

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Post-genocide identity politics in Rwanda

This paper examines ‘how political identities have been reconstructed since the genocide, especially from above’. It tackles the roles of History, law and politics in constructing a new social dynamic, and how this is important in terms of dialogue and reconciliation.

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Obstacles to Peacebuilding in Rwanda

The author looks at the difficulties of a post-genocide peace in Rwanda, by evaluating the obstacles in place which stand in the way of true reconciliation. The key obstacle he focuses on is the nature of the end of the conflict; the challenges that the legacy of a one-sided victory that brought the war to an end, rather than a peaceful settlement.

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The ICTR Contribution to National Reconciliation

After the establishment of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR), an assessment of its achievements must be undertaken. Thus, the paper looks into ICTR’s role in fostering national reconciliation among Rwandans; and pays attention to the obstacles involved in the nature of the conflict that have proved to be a challenge.

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The “Ambivalence of the Sacred”: Christianity, Genocide, and Reconciliation in Rwanda

This paper focuses on the religious dimension of post-genocide Rwanda and the role of the church towards the country’s healing. The author agrees that to “fixate only on the negative aspects of religion, however, is to overlook the quintessential ‘ambivalence of the sacred’ ” (Appleby 2000); that is to say, that religion can serve both as a source of conflict and as a vehicle for peace.

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Transitional Justice: Global Mechanisms and Local Realities after Genocide and Mass Violence (Genocide, Political Violence, Human Rights)

Contributors of this book consider what justice means and how it is negotiated in different localities where transitional justice efforts are underway after genocide and mass atrocity. They address a variety of mechanisms, among them, a memorial site in Bali, truth commissions in Argentina and Chile, First Nations treaty negotiations in Canada, violent youth groups in northern Nigeria, the murder of young women in post-conflict Guatemala, and the gacaca courts in Rwanda.

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Transitional Justice in the Twenty-First Century: Beyond Truth versus Justice

Based on studies in ten countries, this book analyzes how some combine multiple institutions, others experiment with community-level initiatives that draw on traditional law and culture, whilst others combine internal actions with transnational or international ones. The authors argue that transitional justice efforts must also consider the challenges to legitimacy and local ownership emerging after external military intervention or occupation.

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Not on Our Watch: The Mission to End Genocide in Darfur and Beyond

Shocked and energized by Sudan’s tragedy, Cheadle teamed up with leading activist John Prendergast to focus the world’s attention on the country’s sad state of affairs. The book also offers six strategies readers themselves can implement: Raise Awareness, Raise Funds, Write a Letter, Call for Divestment, Start an Organization, and Lobby the Government. Each of these small actions can make a huge difference in the fate of a nation, and a people — not only in Darfur, but in other crisis zones

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Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur

Kiernan examines outbreaks of mass violence from the classical era to the present, focusing on worldwide colonial exterminations and twentieth-century case studies including the Armenian genocide, the Nazi Holocaust, Stalin’s mass murders, and the Cambodian and Rwandan genocides. He identifies connections, patterns, and features that in nearly every case gave early warning of the catastrophe to come: racism or religious prejudice, territorial expansionism, and cults of antiquity and agrarianism. The ideologies that have motivated perpetrators of mass killings in the past persist in our new century, says Kiernan. He urges that we heed the rich historical evidence with its telltale signs for predicting and preventing future genocides.

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Monitoring strategies and tools of unity and reconciliation within institutions based in Rwanda

Considering that institutions can have a power to influence the Government, policy makers and the public in general, NURC found it important to focus on monitoring the unity and reconciliation in public institutions and private institutions. This document is to help develop strategies and tools of monitoring unity and reconciliation within institutions based in Rwanda, and to ensure the implementation of the principles and the National Policy of Unity and Reconciliation with the purpose of maintaining Rwandan unity.

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Post-Conflict Peacebuilding: Meeting Human Needs for Justice and Reconciliation

This paper argues that both justice and reconciliation are fundamentally significant goals that need to be addressed in the design of successful post-conflict peacebuilding processes and mechanisms, especially in the aftermath of genocide. This argument is based on theories that suggest the importance of reconciliation as a means to conflict resolution and transformation. It is supported by the results of field research in Cambodia and Rwanda, and preliminary analysis of experiences in Sierra Leone and East Timor.

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Psychological Aspects of Post-Conflict Reconstruction: Transforming Mindsets: The Case of the Gacaca in Rwanda

Scholars and practitioners contend that psychosocial healing is an effective way to reconstruct and rebuild society with an improved quality of life. It is against this background, that the paper makes an analysis of the gacaca process in Rwanda as a method of culturally sensitive approaches to psychological healing. Its main objective is to examine the Rwandan case and present recommendations on policies, strategies and instruments for post-conflict capacity-building initiatives.

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The Role of Education in Combating Genocide Ideology in Post Genocide Rwanda

The genocide perpetrated against the Tutsi resulted from an ideology of hatred. After the genocide, the Rwandan government began to strive to reconstruct the nation and craft social cohesion in order to prevent genocide. Specifically, the government now aims to fight against any forms of genocide ideology, or the propagation of divisive beliefs, as it was a root cause of the genocide. In this vein, education was viewed as a powerful tool that could help to foster unity and reconciliation and combat any kind of division among Rwandans.

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The Rwandan Conflict: Origin, Development, Exit Strategies

Since it is important for the country to always remember where we came from, the building process of sustainable peace in Rwanda should consider as vital the knowledge of the conflict, its nature and its causes – direct or indirect – and the challenges and opportunities for the Rwandan society. This study is in line with this imperative.

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Community Conflicts in Rwanda: Major Causes and Ways to Solutions

This paper looks at conflicts with community implications; those which bear consequences at the community level and which impede the process of unity and reconciliation. It also looks into ways of developing peaceful mechanisms for conflict management. In this perspective, NURC conducted this study with an aim of detecting in time any precursor sign of a potential conflict for the sake of its prevention.

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Transitional Justice

At the century’s end, societies all over the world are throwing off the yoke of authoritarian rule and beginning to build democracies. At any such time of radical change, the question arises: should a society punish its ancien regime or let bygones be bygones? Transitional Justice takes this question to a new level with an interdisciplinary approach that challenges the very terms of the contemporary debate.

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Women in Conflict and Peace

Drawing on case studies from Afghanistan, Myanmar, the Philippines and Rwanda, this publication analyzes the impact of women on intrastate conflict and peace-building. It also seeks to answer questions like; What roles can women from marginalized communities play in conflict, peace-making and democratization? Which factors lie behind their involvement in armed conflict? What are the consequences of women’s inclusion and exclusion from peace-building activities?

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Dialogue and Consensus for Building the Culture of Self-reliance

The 1994 genocide against Tutsi destroyed the political, social and economic fabrics of the country. Years later, the clear choice of politics has centered on dialogue and consensus to address both national and local issues. This paper looks at how promoting dialogue and consensus has impacted the building and consolidation of social capital and social cohesion to sustain what has been achieved.

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Rwanda Reconciliation Barometer 2015

The purpose of the present Rwanda Reconciliation Barometer (2015) was to track the current status of reconciliation in Rwanda through citizens’ experiences and opinions, while identifying key favorable factors and challenges in this regard. The assessment focused on: understanding the past, present and envisioning the future; citizenship and identity; political culture; security and wellbeing; justice, fairness and rights; and social cohesion.

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The Causes of Violence after the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda

Even after genocide, violence continues raging among the Rwandan population. Apart from community violence, there exists domestic violence, the scale of which is sometimes worrying mostly with regard to rape of wives by their husbands, child sexual defilement rape of girls and of domestic workers and infanticide. This paper seeks to find out the causes of these acts of injustice, and their tentative solutions that could be used as a tool of conflict resolution in Rwanda.

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