Memory, identity and narrative

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After the Genocide in Rwanda-Testimonies of violence, change and reconciliation.

This book gathers previously unpublished testimonies from individuals who lived through the genocide against the Tutsi in 1994. Their stories do not simply paint a picture of lives left destroyed and damaged; they also demonstrate healing relationships, personal growth, forgiveness and reconciliation. Through the lens of positive psychology, the book presents a range of perspectives on what happened in Rwanda in 1994 and shows how people have been changed by their experience of genocide.

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Kwibuka 25: the Genocide through the eyes of a 12-year-old

In the launching of his book, ‘Moi, le dernier Tutsi’ (Me, the Last Tutsi), Habonimana mentioned that he wanted to release his story for future generations to keep the memory of the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi. In his book, he describes how he witnessed killings targeting Tutsi families in his home village of Mayunzwe in Southern Rwanda.

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Memory and Justice in Post-Genocide Rwanda

This book examines the project undertaken by the post-genocide government to shape the collective memory of the Rwandan population, both through political and judicial reforms but also in public commemorations and memorials. Drawing on over two decades of field research in Rwanda, the author uses surveys and comparative local case studies to explore Rwanda’s response both at a governmental and local level.

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God sleeps in Rwanda: A Journey of transformation

Poetic and deeply moving, “God Sleeps in Rwanda “shows us how the lessons of Rwanda can prevent future tragedies from happening all over the world. Readers will be inspired by the eloquence and wisdom of a man who has every right to be bitter and hateful but chooses instead to live a life of love, compassion, and forgiveness.

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Kwibuka25: Rwanda urges international community to stand up for truth, justice

Minister of Foreign Affairs Dr Richard Sezibera addressed to members of the diplomatic corps accredited to Rwanda during a session of reflection: We have sought the support of some of your countries to open your archives related to the Genocide with the goal of owning our history and preserving the memory, which are two important components of our healing, unity and reconciliation.

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Genocide survivor on writing her story to heal and help Rwandans heal

During the first week of the 25th commemoration of the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi, Celine Uwineza will launch her book that chronicles her survival of the genocide, her healing journey from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), her path to entrepreneurship and hope for a bright future. It is also about raising awareness of the various mental and emotional health challenges that people go through and to show them there is light at the end of the tunnel.

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“We are the memory representation of our parents”: Intergenerational legacies of genocide among descendants of rape survivors in Rwanda.

The 1994 genocide against the Tutsi in Rwanda subjected thousands of women to rape as part of a range of other genocidal atrocities. This article explores what it means in everyday life to be a descendant of such mothers. A qualitative study was conducted in eastern Rwanda where twelve respondents, all descendants of genocide-rape survivor mothers, participated in focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews.

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Is it always good to talk? The paradoxes of truth-telling by Rwandans youth born of rape committed during the genocide

This article addresses the effects of open dialogue and truth-telling versus silence in global post-conflict endeavors for justice and reconciliation by endorsing practices of either talk or silence, and also by investigating the practical dilemmas faced by Rwandan youth born of rape committed during the 1994 genocide as they find themselves caught in dual cultural imperatives to reveal and to conceal the circumstances of their origins.

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A history of Rwandan Identity and Trauma: The Mythmaker’s victim

While some agree with the current government’s view of history, others greatly disagree, citing that ethnic identities were crafted long before colonial rule. Fegley attempts to add to the scholarly literature by examining the aggregate Rwandan history to address the formation of ethnic identities. Additionally, the author examines how current Rwanda understands its history in terms of national unity and justice after the 1994 genocide.

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General Assembly Designates 7 April International Day of Reflection on 1994 Genocide against Tutsi in Rwanda, Amending Title of Annual Observance

The General Assembly adopted a decision designating 7 April as the International Day of Reflection on the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi in Rwanda, recalling also that Hutu and others who opposed it were killed. Introducing the decision, Valentine Rugwabiza (Rwanda) said it sought to correct inaccuracies in the Assembly’s 2003 resolution establishing the International Day of Reflection on the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda, particularly its title and operative paragraph one.

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Root causes of Genocide

This is a documentary on the root causes of genocide, division and dehumanisation. The interviewees share with us what happened before the 1994 genocide against the Tutsi; the beliefs brought in by Belgiums on the origin of Hutus, Tutsi and Twa, other massacres that targeted the Tutsis in prior years, how they fled the country, lived as refugees in neighbouring countries and their plight in 1994.

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Rwanda marks 24 years after genocide

• The President, speaking at the 24th commemoration at the Kigali Genocide Memorial Centre on April 7, said that though Rwanda has largely left behind its difficult past, there was need to keep remembering the massacre to ensure that the “truth is not rewritten”.

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Remembering victims of genocide is to recommit to never again

To remember isn’t only to honour the memory of victims who died at the hands of evil men and women or is it only to reaffirm their humanity. It’s also to recommit to the spirit of never again genocide. This also means committing to fight and uproot the ideology of genocide along with it its denials while rendering an uplifting hand to survivors.

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Show us where bodies of our loved ones were dumped, say survivors

Every April 12, residents of Kayonza District and those who hail from the area, converge at Mukarange Catholic Parish Church to commemorate the Tutsi who were killed at the church during the Genocide against the Tutsi. During this year’s commemoration, the orphans pleaded that people come forth and show the whereabouts of hundreds of bodies of the victims that have not been accounted for yet.

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How genocide ideology crept into the once united Rwankuba

According to residents of Rwankuba, the genocide ideology seeped into their area in 1990, twenty-seven years after the infamous speech by Gregoire Kayibanda in October 1963 that emphasised ethnicity, calling Tutsis as hypocrites. The last nail in the evil plots of spreading the genocide ideology in Rwankuba was driven by Jean Baptiste Gatete, former Bourgmestre of Murambi Commune.

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Hope for better future remains as Nyange attack heroes are honoured

“We had just taken our dinner and gone back to class for revision. Just as we started our revision, the militiamen forced themselves into our class and asked us to separate along our ethnic groups. We defied the order and told them we were all Rwandans,” said Abayisenga. Infuriated by the students’ remarks, the militia started shooting at the innocent students indiscriminately, leaving seven of them dead.

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Survivors back bid to include modern-day genocides in national Holocaust Memorial

Holocaust survivors have joined MPs to back a move to open an atrocity prevention centre at the new national Holocaust Memorial being built in Westminster. Martin Stern, a Terezin camp survivor, stressed the need for the new memorial in the shadow of Parliament to commemorate modern-day atrocities such as those in Rwanda and Bosnia, as well recording the slaughter of six million Jews in the Shoah.

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The Story Behind “Jambo ASBL” Due To Appear At Belgian Parliament

A group of Rwandan exiles under their umbrella “Jambo ASBL” has provoked angry reaction in Belgium after they were granted permission to hold an event at parliament to discuss what they refer to as the “history of Rwanda”. The Rwandan embassy in Brussels has protested the event and wants it cancelled. Jambo ASBL says they have “credible” information they want to share with the Belgian lawmakers about the “history of Rwanda”. In their letter, and all their previous public statements, they do not admit there was a genocide targeting Tutsis in Rwanda.

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Indigenousness in Africa

The author explores the sources of indigenous identification in Africa and its legal and political implications. Noting the limitations of systematic and discursive, as opposed to activist, studies, it questions the appropriateness of this framework in efforts aimed at empowering claimant communities in inherently multiethnic African countries and adopts an interdisciplinary approach in order to capture the indigenous rights phenomenon in Africa.

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The Specter of Genocide: Mass Murder in Historical Perspective

Focusing on the twentieth century, this collection of essays offers an up-to-date, comprehensive history and analysis of multiple cases of genocide and genocidal acts. The book contains studies of the Armenian genocide; the victims of Stalinist terror; the Holocaust; and Imperial Japan. Contributors explore colonialism and address the fate of the indigenous peoples in Africa, North America, and Australia. In addition, extensive coverage of the post-1945 period includes the atrocities in the former Yugoslavia, Bali, Cambodia, Ethiopia, Rwanda, East Timor, and Guatemala.

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Black Earth: The Holocaust as History and Warning

In this epic history of extermination and survival, Timothy Snyder presents a new explanation of the great atrocity of the twentieth century, and reveals the risks that we face in the twenty-first. Based on new sources from eastern Europe and forgotten testimonies from Jewish survivors, Black Earth recounts the mass murder of the Jews as an event that is still close to us, more comprehensible than we would like to think, and thus all the more terrifying.

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Genocide: A World History (New Oxford World History)

This book examines the main episodes in the history of genocide from the beginning of human history to the present. Norman lucidly shows that genocide both changes over time, depending on the character of major historical periods, and remains the same in many of its murderous dynamics. He examines cases of genocide as distinct episodes of mass violence, but also in historical connection with earlier episodes. He argues that genocide can also involve the elimination of targeted social and political groups, providing an insightful analysis of communist and anti-communist genocide.

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Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction

The book is designed as a text for upper-undergraduate and graduate students, as well as a primer for non-specialists and general readers interested in learning about one of humanity’s enduring blights. Written in clear and lively prose, liberally sprinkled with over 100 illustrations and maps, and including personal testimonies from genocide survivors, Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction has established itself as the core textbook of the new generation of genocide scholarship

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Women leaders in the Rwandan Genocide: When women choose to kill

Low-level violence and looting by women against one’s neighbors is perhaps, sadly, unsurprising but the involvement of female leaders in the genocide against the Tutsi (cabinet officials, nuns, journalists, nurses, and teachers) is striking and factually well-established. Were women more likely to be perpetrators of genocide violence in Rwanda than in other cases of mass violence or does it appear this way only because we have more evidence? Regardless of the answer, this essay seeks to explore the evidence we do have of leading female perpetrators and their motivation.

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Testing the double-genocide thesis for Central and Southern Rwanda

This study presents demographic findings about the transition of rural households from a period of civil war and genocide to a situation of relative peace. Findings are based on intensive household survey research. The study is the result of 8 months of field research in Rwanda over a period of 2 years. It will enable us to test the double-genocide thesis empirically for parts of the country.

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Rwanda: Who is killing; who is dying; what is to be done

The scale of the tragedy in Rwanda today needs no underscoring. What has occurred, and continues to take place, is a crime of enormous proportions. It is appropriate to call it genocide. This paper is concerned with the crime of genocide: the evidence that genocide is indeed taking place, the identities of those responsible for it, their motives, their means, and the implications of the mass murder for Rwanda, east and central Africa, and the world.

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A Quantitative Analysis of Genocide in Kibuye Prefecture, Rwanda

The analysis shows that Tutsi from the sectors of Mabanza commune whose Tutsi population did not (or only in limited numbers) go to the Gatwaro Stadium had a better chance to survive the genocide in Kibuye. The analysis shows that the probability to be killed with a fire-arm depended on the commune of residence of the victim, the age of the victim, the number of days after April 6 the victim was killed and on interaction effects between the latter two variables and the sex of the victim.

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Rwanda Genocide Stories: Fiction After 1994

The book is a powerful exploration of the literary response to the 1994 genocide against the Tutsi in Rwanda. It explores writings from and about witnesses, survivors and perpetrators. It is an interdisciplinary study that will appeal to scholars in French and Francophone Studies and African Studies.

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Everyday ethnicities: identity and reconciliation among Rwandan youth

This paper explores the role of the “ethnic” categories “Hutu,” “Tutsi” and “Twa” in their everyday relations and relationships. Through exploring their narratives, practices and social interactions, the paper demonstrates that—despite current state policies that seek to de-emphasize “ethnic” identities—ethnicity remains salient in contemporary Rwanda. Exploring the complexities, contradictions and uncertainties of these processes of categorization, this paper investigates the relationship between “conceptual” categories and “concrete” persons in contemporary Rwanda.

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Female Perpetrators of the Rwandan Genocide

This paper discusses how women were mobilized before and during the genocide, the specific actions of women who exercised agency and finally what happened to these women in the aftermath of the genocide. It asserts that women played an active role in the Rwandan genocide but are often excluded from the dominant narrative. It also addresses the implications of ignoring female perpetrators of genocide.

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A Thousand Hills: Rwanda’s Rebirth and the Man Who Dreamed It

The book is the story of Paul Kagame, a refugee who, after a generation of exile, found his way home. It talks about President Kagame, who strives to make Rwanda the first middle-income country in Africa, in a single generation. In this adventurous tale, learn about Kagame’s early fascination with Che Guevara and James Bond, his years as an intelligence agent, his training in Cuba and the United States, the way he built his secret rebel army, his bloody rebellion, and his outsized ambitions for Rwanda.

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Life Laid Bare: The Survivors in Rwanda Speak

In the villages of Nyamata and N’tarama, Hatzfeld interviewed fourteen survivors of the genocide. They speak for those who are no longer alive to speak for themselves; they tell of the deaths of family and friends in the churches and marshes to which they fled, and they attempt to account for the reasons behind the Tutsi extermination. For many of the survivors “life has broken down,” while for others, it has “stopped,” and still others say that it “absolutely must go on.” These voices of courage and resilience exemplify the indomitable human spirit, and they remind us of our own moral responsibility to bear witness to these atrocities and to never forget what can come to pass again.

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The Bone Woman: Among the Dead in Rwanda, Bosnia, Croatia and Kosovo

In 1996, Clea Koff, a 23-year-old graduate student was sent to Rwanda by the U.N. to work with a small team exhuming victims of the genocide against the Tutsi. The book is a mesmerizing account of her four years of gruelling investigations into these, and other, murderous events – what she found in the Rwandan hills and in Srebrenica; how it affected her; and who went to trial based on evidence she collected – events which transformed her from an idealistic student to a war crimes veteran.

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The Order of Genocide : Race, Power, and War in Rwanda

The author does not deny the importance of ethnicity in the genocide against the Tutsi, but he finds that it operated more as a background condition. Instead, he emphasizes fear and intra-ethnic intimidation as the primary drivers of the violence. A defensive civil war and the assassination of a president created a feeling of acute insecurity. In conclusion, Straus steps back from the particulars of the genocide against the Tutsi to offer a new, dynamic model for understanding other instances of genocide in recent history—the Holocaust, Armenia, Cambodia, the Balkans—and assessing the future likelihood of such events.

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As we forgive: Stories of reconciliation from Rwanda

Based on personal interviews and thorough research, the book returns to the boundary lines of genocide’s wounds and traces the route of reconciliation in the lives of Rwandans—victims, widows, orphans, and perpetrators—whose past and future intersect. We find in these stories how suffering, memory, and identity set up roadblocks to forgiveness, while mediation, truth-telling, restitution, and interdependence create bridges to healing.

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Conspiracy to murder

The book reveals the extent of the planning of the genocide and its progress country-wide. The book contains the first comprehensive reconstruction of the genocide together with exclusive information about French foreign policy towards Rwanda – the role of its intelligence services and its mercenaries. The author had unique access to files and records that were abandoned by the genocidaires, many of these documents from the previous regime’s department of military intelligence. These documents give a unique insight into the minds of the conspirators and how they determined that genocide and the racist policy that underpinned it should become a part of government policy.

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Season of Blood: A Rwandan Journey

When President Habyarimana’s jet was shot down in April 1994, Rwanda erupted into a hundred-day orgy of killing – which left up to a million dead. Fergal Keane travelled through the country as the genocide was continuing, and his powerful analysis reveals the terrible truth behind the headlines.

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The Path of a Genocide: The Rwanda Crisis from Uganda to Zaire

The book examines the decade (1986-97) that brackets the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. This collection of essays is both a narrative of that event and a deep re-examination of the international role in addressing humanitarian issues and complex emergencies. It offers readers a perspective in sharp contrast to the tendency to treat a peace agreement as the end to conflict. This is a detailed effort to make sense of the political crisis, the genocide against the Tutsi and the effects it had on its neighbours.

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A People Betrayed: The Role of the West in Rwanda’s Genocide

The author tells the compelling story of what happened during the genocide against the Tutsi. She holds governments to account, showing how individuals could have prevented what was happening and didn’t do so. The book also reveals the unrecognised heroism of those who stayed on during the genocide, volunteer peacekeepers and those who ran emergency medical care. This new edition examines the ongoing impact of the 1948 Genocide Convention and the shock waves Rwanda caused around the world.

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Running the Rift

Jean Patrick dreams of running in the Olympics, and with gruelling training he soon beats a world qualifying time. But his chances of success are threatened by the ethnic tensions erupting all around him. When Hutu violence against Tutsis finally crescendos and his homeland Rwanda is wracked by unforgivable atrocities, Jean Patrick, a Tutsi, has no choice but to run for his life abandoning fatherland, family, and the woman he loves. Finding them again will be the race of his life.

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Hutu and Tutsi: Heritage Library of African Peoples

The book concerns Hutu/Tutsi politics and violence since 1959. This emphasis tends to obscure the roots of the problem in the colonial period. Aimable accurately stresses that the Hutu, Tutsi (and Twa) share language, religion, and space, with their identities having been somewhat flexible and based on unequal status. He discusses the European colonials’ racial stereotypes but does not specify the profound impact of European “scientific” racism, which assumed that Tutsi and Hutu were different “races,” with the Hutu born to be forever inferior.

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Historical Dictionary of Rwanda

Blessed with natural beauty and rich vegetation, Rwanda is often called the “land of a thousand hills”. Rwandans possess a centric view of the world, believing that God favors Rwanda and that Rwanda means “the universe.” However, this idyllic view of Rwanda sharply contrasts with the sad history of ethnic strife that has unfolded in the country since the 1950s and in 1994. This book through its chronology, introductory essays, appendixes, maps, bibliography, and hundreds of cross-referenced dictionary entries on important persons, places, events, and institutions and significant political, economic, social, and cultural aspects, provides an important reference on this central African country.

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The cohesion of oppression: Clientship and Ethnicity in Rwanda, 1860-1960

Revolutions are often seen in terms of a spontaneous burst of intense political activity; less attention usually is given to the structures, processes, and perceptions that make such activity possible. This innovative book examines such long-term transformations as they relate to the revolution in the Central African nation of Rwanda, which culminated in its independence in July 1962. It explores the interaction of central and local power bases and delineates the transformations introduced into the system by German and Belgian colonial policies that consciously sought to bolster one ethnic group as agents of colonial administration.

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Defeat is the Only Bad News: Rwanda Under Musinga, 1897-1931

A Rwandan proverb says “Defeat is the only bad news.” For Rwandans living under colonial rule, winning called not only for armed confrontation, but also for a battle of wits—and not only with foreigners, but also with each other. Alison recounts the ambitions, strategies, and intrigues of an African royal court under Yuhi Musinga, the Rwandan ruler from 1896 to 1931. These were turbulent years for Rwanda, when first Germany and then Belgium pursued an aggressive plan of colonization there.

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Accounting for horror: post-genocide debates in Rwanda

Based on interviews carried out for doctoral research in Rwanda 1998 and in Europe 1999, Nigel Eltringham deals with the discourse on responsibility for the 1994 genocide in Rwanda and on the binary construction of Rwandan society. He focuses on six debates that prove to be crucial for the understanding of how absolutist ways of picturing Rwandan society made the genocide possible, and he dedicates a chapter to each of these debates.

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The Shallow Graves of Rwanda

This book is a unique account of the UN Secretary-General’s Special Representative in Rwanda in the mid-1990s. Shaharyar M. Khan’s tenure began in the immediate aftermath of the downing of President Habarimana’s plane on April 6, 1994 and the massacres that followed. Khan details his encounters with soldiers and politicians, victims and survivors, perpetrators of the massacres, and humanitarian relief efforts. This book reveals how the UN works on the ground and at headquarters.

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The Girl Who Smiled Beads: A Story of War and What Comes After

Clemantine Wamariya was six years old when the genocide against the Tutsi took place. She shares her story from then until when she found asylum in the United States. Raw, urgent, yet disarmingly beautiful, The Girl Who Smiled Beads captures the true costs and aftershocks of war: what is forever lost, what can be repaired, the fragility and importance of memory, the faith that one can learn, again, to love oneself, even with deep scars.

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The Theatre of Genocide: Four Plays about Mass Murder in Rwanda, Bosnia, Cambodia, and Armenia

The book is a major artistic contribution to the study of the history and effects of genocide. The scripts deal with the destruction of four targeted populations: Armenians in Lorne Shirinian’s Exile in the Cradle, Cambodians in Catherine Filloux’s Silence of God, Bosnian Muslims in Kitty Felde’s A Patch of Earth, and Rwandan Tutsis in Erik Ehn’s Maria Kizito. Taken together, these four plays erase the boundaries of theatrical realism to present stories that probe the actions of the perpetrators and the suffering of their victims.

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Me Against My Brother: At War in Somalia, Sudan and Rwanda

As a foreign correspondent, Scott witnessed firsthand Somalia’s descent into war and its battle against US troops, the spiritual degeneration of Sudan’s Holy War, and one of the most horrific events of the last half century: the genocide in Rwanda. He brings these events together for the first time to record a collapse that has had an impact far beyond African borders. Filled with the dust, sweat and powerful detail of real-life, the book graphically illustrates how preventive action and a better understanding of Africa – especially by the US – could have averted much suffering.

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Breaking the Cycles of Hatred: Memory, Law, and Repair

The book represents a unique blend of political and legal theory, one that focuses on the double-edged role of memory in fueling cycles of hatred and maintaining justice and personal integrity. Its centerpiece comprises three penetrating essays by Minow. She argues that innovative legal institutions and practices, such as truth commissions and civil damage actions against groups that sponsor hate, often work better than more conventional criminal proceedings and sanctions. Minow also calls for more sustained attention to the underlying dynamics of violence.

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Love Above All: Forgiveness of a Young Rwandan Genocide Survivor

The author shares his life struggles, how he commemorated his lost family and the way they died, searching if any relatives survived, and working to earn everyday life. This struggle took long but as time went on, he started gaining hope for the future. First, he started thinking beyond himself, then about helping his fellow genocide survivors and contributing to the reconstruction of the country. His belief in God generated love and brought him to forgive people who killed his family.

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Carrying Divine: My Rwanda Genocide Survivor Story

The author shares her own experience of her country’s past. She starts her memoir with her idyllic childhood in the Land of a Thousand Hills with her large, happy family before the genocide; but soon, their own Hutu-led government and military turns against them when she is pregnant. Henriette must endure the Rwandan Genocide as a Tutsi woman, and protect her family in the process. Witnessing her family’s degradation and experiencing her own torture, she finds strength in God to continue fighting for her and her unborn daughter’s lives.

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Ubumwe bw’abanyarwanda mu mateka yabo

Ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda mu mateka yabo. Igice cya mbere: Ubukoroni n’Mcakubiri mu Rwanda.
Muri iki gitabo, umwanditsi agaragaza imibanire y’Abanyarwanda mbere y’uko abazungu baza mu Rwanda, uko iyo mibanire myiza yaje kugenda ihinduka mibi buhoro buhoro bitewe n’imiyoborere mibi y’ubukoroni ndetse n’uburyo Abatutsi batangiye kwirukanwa mu Rwanda. Iki gitabo gisoza kivuga uko abakoroni basizeho Repubulika ya mbere yagombaga gukomeza gukora ku nyungu zabo.

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Rwanda Means the Universe: A Native’s Memoir of Blood and Bloodlines

The narrative takes the reader on a journey from the days the world and Rwanda discovered each other back to colonial period when pseudoscientific ideas about race put the nation on a highway bound for the 1994 genocide. Urged on by the desire to find a letter her brother sent her, Mushikiwabo rummages into their farm childhood, and into family corners alternately dark, loving, and humorous. She searches for stray mementos of the lost, then for their roots. What she finds is that and more—hints, roots, of the 1994 crime that killed her family.

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The Bishop of Rwanda

This book shares the story ofAnglican Bishop John Rucyahana; having members of his church and family butchered. John refused to become a part of the systemic hatred. He founded the Sonrise orphanage and school for children orphaned in the genocide, and he now leads reconciliation efforts between his own Tutsi people, the victims of this horrific massacre, and the perpetrators, the Hutus.

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The Churches and Ethnic Ideology in the Rwandan Crises 1900-1994

In Rwanda, 1973 to 1994 the Catholic and Protestant leaders entered into close political relations with the regime of the MRND (Mouvement Revolutionnaire National pour le Developpement), which alienated them from the people of Rwanda when human rights abuses were widespread, culminating in the war in 1990 and the genocide of 1994. If the church’s mission remains that of teaching and evidencing love, justice and righteousness, there is need for it to confess and repent of its failures and complicity in the tragedies.

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The Interrelation between the Right to Identity of Minorities and their Socio-economic Participation

This edited volume sets out to unravel various dimensions of a particular topical question pertaining to minorities and minority protection, which has not been explored yet, more particularly the socio-economic participation of minorities in relation to their right to (respect for) identity. This interrelation and interaction is studied from a multi-disciplinary perspective, spanning a broad range of disciplines, while drawing on a rich variety of case studies covering various corners of the world.

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Killing Neighbors Webs of Violence in Rwanda

Fujii argues that ethnic hatred and fear do not satisfactorily explain the mobilization of Rwandans one against another. Fujii’s extensive interviews in Rwandan prisons and two rural communities form the basis for her claim that mass participation in the genocide was not the result of ethnic antagonisms. Rather, the social context of action was critical. Strong group dynamics and established local ties shaped patterns of recruitment for and participation in the genocide.

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Making and Unmaking Nations: War, Leadership, and Genocide in Modern Africa

Scott Straus seeks to explain why and how genocide takes place—and, perhaps more important, how it has been avoided in places where it may have seemed likely or even inevitable. To solve that puzzle, he examines postcolonial Africa, analyzing countries in which genocide occurred and where it could have but did not. Why have there not been other Rwandas? Straus finds that deep-rooted ideologies—how leaders make their nations—shape strategies of violence and are central to what leads to or away from genocide. Other critical factors include the dynamics of war, the role of restraint, and the interaction between national and local actors in the staging of campaigns of large-scale violence.

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Experts push for archiving to preserve genocide memory

Archiving genocide facts has significant implications on not only preserving evidence but also on building strong foundations for the country’s socio-economic development and preserving the historical facts for present and future generations to learn from. Experts said this during a meeting hosted by King’s College London and Aegis Trust, in Kigali, which discussed digital archives, memory and reconstruction in Rwanda.

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After death threats, man who hid body of ex-premier gets state protection

Rwanda Government has provided security to Caporal (Rtd) Thadeo Karamaga – a man who has received several death threats for hiding body of Ex-Premier Agathe Uwiringiyimana during the Genocide Against Tutsi. According to previous stories wrote, his commanders rushed the body of Prime Uwiringiyimana to Kanombe military cemetery and handed it to him for immediate burial. He was however cautious; he hid the body in the mortuary until the fall of Kigali. He handed it to Rwanda Patriotic Army (RPA) Inkotanyi for decent burial.

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Declassified French documents confirm Paris fought RPF to the bitter end

It has been 23 years since the start of the genocide against the Tutsi. France has been accused of complicity in the genocide but refuses to apologise often slamming Rwandans for distorting history. However, the declassified French documents reveal a different story; a story of French officials who fought the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) to the bitter end when they knew that only a military victory of this rebel force could stop the genocide.

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ICTR convict confesses on Kibeho Holy land massacre

A former army captain serving 35-year sentence at a Malian prison for genocide in Rwanda knows exactly what happened to thousands of Tutsis who sought refuge in April 1994 at Kibeho catholic parish, a site where the Virgin Mary has made apparitions. He says the massacre of Tutsis at Kibeho raged on from April 10, 11, 12 and the final assault was April 14. During the following days, militias used bulldozer and their own arms to throw the bodies in mass graves. They left some uncovered.

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Survivors share testimony to mark 23 years since genocide in Rwanda

A survivor of the 1994 genocide against the Tutsi ethnic group in Rwanda shared her harrowing story with some 230 people at an event hosted by the Embassy of the Republic of Rwanda in Tel Aviv to mark 23 years since the atrocities. Suzanne gave painful testimony of her long journey to survival as 26-year-old woman who lost her new-born baby after giving birth to him in a bush.

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‘Begging’ perpetrators to show where they dumped genocide victims may stop

Pleading with genocide perpetrators to show or indicate places where they dumped bodies of victims could soon be stopped because they intentionally refuse to speak-up. “I don’t think we should continue pleading with perpetrators to show us where they dumped bodies of victims. If they want they can tell us. If we are lucky and locate any sites, we will always accord them decent burial”, Dr. Bizimana said.

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Rwanda’s memorial sites and the stories they tell

A team of media practitioners and some young genocide survivors went from one place to another paying tribute to victims of the genocide. But one thing was consistent, rain kept pouring. To someone who was not in the country in April 1994, they would perhaps guess that rain made life even harder for the ‘wanted Tutsi’ back then. However, one iconic survivor Aroni Gakoko, told Sunday Times that rain was “partly a savior”.

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Genocide archives facility takes shape

The Genocide Archive of Rwanda has so far uploaded and digitised about 8,000 information items-related to 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi, including confessions by perpetrators. Chief Justice Sam Rugege believes that the facility will be an important tool for students, teachers and researchers to easily access history about Rwanda and specifically the Genocide.

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Why every Rwandan should visit cultural museums

It will be too difficult for the young generation to sustain ancient values and knowledge let alone survive waves of globalisation, if they don’t take time to learn from a few of such surviving historical facts conserved in museums around the country, conservationists have said. This was highlighted when Rwanda joined the rest of the world to mark International Museum day.

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Kwibuka23: How the genocidal regime used state coffers to finance a massacre

The genocidal regime used different methods to draw money from state coffers to procure weapons that were used to kill over a million people in the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi. This was said by Dr. Jean Damascene Bizimana, the Executive Secretary of the National Commission for the Fight against Genocide (CNLG), during a memorial ceremony for 104 former employees of the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning.

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CNLG to fast-track UNESCO listing of Genocide memorials

The National Commission for the fight against Genocide (CNLG) and the International Coalition of sites of Conscience (ICSC) are carrying out a joint assessment exercise to ascertain the level of compliance by Genocide memorial sites bidding to be added on world heritage list. At least four Genocide memorials are expected to be included on UNESCO’s World Heritage Sites.

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Prosecutor: Denial of Yugoslav and Rwanda Crimes Widespread

The chief prosecutor of war crimes in former Yugoslavia and genocide in Rwanda has warned that denial of these crimes is now widespread and efforts are underway to rewrite history. Serge Brammertz told the U.N. Security Council there is a refusal by officials and others to accept the facts gathered by U.N. tribunals documenting ethnic cleansing and other crimes in former Yugoslavia and genocide in Rwanda in 1994.

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UR, CNLG renew forensic medicine partnership with Hamburg University

University of Rwanda’s School of Medicine and Pharmacy, the Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Hamburg in Germany, Rwanda National Police and the National Commission for the Fight against Genocide (CNLG) have committed to continue their collaboration in Genocide proofs conservation as well as forensic medicine. This was announced at the interdisciplinary forensic summer school; “Knowledge Transfer for Forensic Science Development.”

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Shedding tears at the Genocide Memorial in Rwanda And learning why dark tourism is important

A visit to the Memorial clearly underlines why it is important for many of us to stop being mere tourists and become a more conscious traveller. A country is not just the result of its landscapes and colourful attractions, but most importantly of its people, their culture and their past. The greatest lesson to take home from Kigali Genocide Memorial is that the country is not denying its past; it is not trying to make its people forget the genocide. But in fact, the memorials are ‘a place for remembrance and learning’.

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History of Rwanda : from the beginning to the end of the twentieth century history of Rwanda

This comprehensive work aims at establishing the truth of the past and promoting the critical mind of the future. The framework used is especially important in educating the youth, who can now claim improved tools for accessing knowledge of their national history. This work gives a balanced account of events but certainly does not provide an exhaustive account of everything that took place. Its objective is to provide basic, objective information about the essential aspects of the evolution of Rwanda, some of which are deeply controversial.

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Conservation of memorials key to prevention of genocide

The author argues that keeping the memory alive is crucial for prevention of genocide. Proper maintenance of the memorials of the Genocide against the Tutsi will help people (those who visit the sites) understand what genocide is. Also, keeping these memorials in good shape will also serve as facts to belie those who deny the Genocide against the Tutsi.

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Holocaust survivor shares her testimony with young Rwandans

An eighty-six-year-old survivor of the Holocaust, Susan Pollack, shared her emotional testimony of how she survived a genocide in which some six million European Jews were killed by Adolf Hitler’s Nazi Germany. Pollack delivered her testimony to over 50 young survivors of the genocide against the Tutsi drawn from different survivor groups as well as young people eager to learn about the history of the Jewish Holocaust and the Genocide against the Tutsi.

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An exploration of community perceptions and understanding of Rwandan genocide memorials

This study aims to explore community perceptions and understandings of Rwandan Genocide Memorials. In building genocide memorials, Rwanda is refusing to let go unrecognized the victims of genocide. Through pictures, graphics and photographs, genocide memorials talk to the community. The population reads and interprets differently the messages genocide memorials communicate. The community’s interpretation is often influenced by various personal experiences and by social, cultural, political and religious environments.

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Manipulation of ethnic identity during the colonial reform of administration (1926- 1931) and conflict in Rwanda

This study aimed to highlight factors used by the Belgian authorities to divide Rwandans during the Colonial Reform Process between 1926 and 1931. More specially, it is aimed at identifying how they mobilised Hutu, Tutsi and Twa social classes and transformed the ethnic identities. The scarcity of environmental resources increased the desire to monopolise control of the country as this was continually perceived as only means of access to resources. This led Rwandan politicians to use ethnicity as a way to secure power. Consequently, a culture of ethnic violence became entrenched. This culminated in genocide from April to July 1994.

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Reconciliation and reconstruction of post-genocide Rwanda : a search for an appropriate architectural expression

African countries have for a long time undergone a series of problems that include; genocide, racism, economic depression, colonisation, civil wars, and so on. These have left many African societies in hopeless situations that entail considerable intervention. This study will explore the possible causes of conflicts mainly genocide and collective violence, in which the 1994 genocide against the Tutsi in Rwanda will be the main focus.

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A sociological analysis of culture and memory: A case study of the Kigali memorial center of genocide in Rwanda

In 1994 genocide against the Tutsi occurred in Rwanda. The Kigali Genocide Memorial is one of the memorials which stands as a reminder of the horror, in order to inform the community to keep watching. This raised the curiosity of the researcher, to analyze how these new symbols can contribute to restore and revitalize social and cultural values in the context of Rwanda.

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Genocide, citizenship and political identity crisis in postcolonial Africa: Rwanda as case study

This thesis is an analytical exploration of the root causes of the 1994 Rwandan genocide. It explains how Tutsi became non-indigenous Hamities and how Hutu became native indigenous, leaving the two populations to be identified along racial and ethnic lines. In 1933, the Belgians introduced identity cards which specified one’s ethnic affiliation, giving birth to political identities as Hutu and Tutsi ceased to become cultural identities and became political identities.

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The role of narrative in healing in Rwanda

This thesis seeks to unearth narratives of history and identity as a way of exploring possibilities for healing and reconciliation. Through an in-depth examination of four life stories, interviews with leaders in the field of reconciliation in Rwanda and informal interviews with a broad spectrum of Rwandans, this research sheds light on the challenges and opportunities in terms of healing. It finds that through critical engagement with our own and broader socio-political narratives we can expand the possibilities of our own narratives, allowing scope for personal healing as well as leading to a deeper understanding of the other.

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From genocide to Gacaca : historical and socio-political dynamics of identities in the late twentieth century in Rwanda : the perspective of the Durban based Rwandese

This study is aimed at providing a comprehensive and compelling explanation of the process and the operations of the Gacaca tribunals. Thus by means of both historical and empirical analysis, the study hopes to determine the challenges confronting the system and the promise it holds, if any, and to recommend the need to adopt and adapt to an approach which is wider and more integrated in dealing with reconciliation in the region.

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The Rwandan akazi (forced labour) system, history, and humiliation

The article examines the Rwandan history and its relationship to the employment of humiliation. According to the author, social inequalities had persisted even before Belgium took control of Rwanda. The ranks of society were based on the proprietorship of cows. With the introduction of forced labor, The Belgian authorities convinced the people that no differences existed between services rendered and forced labor. But, the Hutu was forced to submit to the humiliation of forced labor under the Tutsis. As a result, genocide followed and created the most tragic catastrophe of death, misery, and humiliation that the Hutus could inflict on the Tutsis.

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Twa Marginality and Indigenousness in Rwanda

This paper takes a retrospective look at historical and socio-anthropological considerations over the Twa identity. The rationale is that, while history might seem irrelevant in efforts aimed at addressing the present predicament of Twas of Rwanda and other (former) hunter-gatherer communities in the region, interrogation of the past might inform the present and suggest remedies for the future.

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Survey Reveals 7,797 Families Were Wiped-out During Genocide Against Tutsi

A total of up to 7797 families have been identified to have completely been wiped-out during the 1994 Genocide against Tutsi which claimed a million lives in just a hundred days. This was reported by GAERG – a non-profit Organization bringing together former students who survived the genocide against the Tutsi – during a commemoration event held at Rubavu district on Saturday, the 27th May 2017.

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Courts in Conflict: Interpreting the Layers of Justice in Post-Genocide Rwanda

Transitional justice initiatives in post-genocide Rwanda include the United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR), and national and local transitional justice initiatives by the Rwandan government. More than two decades later, it is important to take stock of the lessons learned through empirical research which is relevant for improving the understanding of post-conflict societies and the impact of transitional justice mechanisms.

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Leave None to Tell the Story: Genocide in Rwanda

Based on Rwandan government records, the book dissects the deceptive discourse of genocide and shows how ordinary administrative structures and practices were turned into mechanisms of murder. It describes opposition to the killing campaign and how it was broken. In the words of survivors, it relates how they resisted and escaped. Using diplomatic and court documents, the study details the transformation of international indifference into tardy criticism.

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Rwanda’s Popular Genocide: A Perfect Storm

Why did Rwanda’s rural Hutus participate so massively, and so personally, in the country’s 1994 genocide of its Tutsi population? Given all that has been written already about this horrific episode, is there still more that can be learned? Answering these questions, Jean-Paul Kimonyo’s social and economic history explores at the deepest level the role both of power relations among Rwanda’s grassroots citizens, political parties, and the state and of socioeconomic factors vs. politically/socially constructed ethnicity.

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Rwanda – Enseignement de L’Histoire Nationale de 1962 a 1994

Le livre analyse les relations entre les mémoires et l’histoire scolaire du Rwanda. L’auteur étudie sept thèmes présentes comme conflictuels dans l’historiographie rwandaise. La manière dont ces thèmes sont présentes dans les manuels d’histoire utilises entre 1962 et 1994 ainsi que les conceptions qu’en ont des Rwandais ayant été, ou non, scolarises constituent la charpente de l’ouvrage. Les resultats de recherches montrent de nombreuses convergences entre les contenus des manuels scolaires et les souvenirs des Rwandais interviewes lors de l’enquête.

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