Gender dimensions of post-genocide recovery

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Rwanda After Genocide: Gender, Identity and Post-traumatic growth

This book offers an in-depth study of posttraumatic growth in the testimonies of the men and women who survived, highlighting the ways in which they were able to build a new, and often enhanced, way of life. In so doing, the author advocates a new reading of trauma: one that recognises not just the negative, but also the positive responses to traumatic experiences, through an analysis of testimonies recorded in Kinyarwanda by the Genocide Archive of Rwanda.

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When Ethnicity Beats Gender: Quotas and Political Representation in Rwanda and Burundi

This paper examines the impact of electoral gender quotas in post-war Burundi and Rwanda on women’s political representation. First, it looks at the evolution in descriptive representation by studying the number of female representatives and the prestige of their positions in the legislative and executive branches of government. The results show that, in both Rwanda and Burundi, the number of female political representatives significantly increased with the introduction of gender quotas, with their presence in parliament and ministries consistently exceeding 30 per cent.

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Kwibuka25: What role should women assume in the journey to transformation?

Rwanda has place women empowerment at the forefront, something that has enabled women to contribute to the development of the country. As the country commemorates the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi, the country has made huge strides in terms of transformation, though much still remains to be done. Donah Mbabazi talked to a number of women on what they think should be done.

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Barriers to women’s progress after atrocity: Evidence from Rwanda and Bosnia-Herzegovania

Researchers have recently documented the unexpected opportunities war can present for women. While acknowledging the devastating effects of mass violence, this article highlights the war’s potential to catalyze grassroots mobilization and build more gender-sensitive institutions and legal frameworks. Rwanda and Bosnia-Herzegovina serve as important examples of this phenomenon, yet a closer examination of both cases reveals the limits on women’s capacity to take part in and benefit from these postwar shifts.

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From male to joint land ownership: Women’s experiences of the land tenure reform programme in Rwanda

During the post‐genocide period, the Government of Rwanda embarked on a land tenure reform programme that culminated in a land registration and titling process in 2009. This paper intends to capture women’s experiences in relation to this programme. The main findings reveal that there is support of the general idea that women should benefit from the land tenure reform in Rwanda. However, there is some criticism towards parts of the land laws, and women have limited actual knowledge about land‐related laws.

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Rwanda: Fighting Poverty With Equality

Traditionally, Rwandan women like Epiphanie Mukamurenzi would be confined to domestic chores, with her husband in charge of anything concerned with household income. Now the Rwandan Government- with support from the UN’s International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) – is empowering women like Epiphanie to be equally involved in the management of their family’s finances, creating a new gender equality model for the country.

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Strengthening citizen participation around sensitive issues in order to prevent conflicts in the Great Lakes region: The role and place of women in mediation in Gisagara District, Rwanda

This report is on a case study that investigates the evolution of the role and place of women in land mediation in Gisagara District, Southern Province of Rwanda since the implementation of the project. This District was chosen to represent Abunzi in Gisagara who had received two rounds of trainings by Search for Common Ground and thus, started applying the skills acquired in their mediation work. This report presents findings from the qualitative research conducted to highlight achievements in local mediation with an emphasis on the role of women.

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Genocide, masculinity and posttraumatic growth in Rwanda: reconstructing male identity through ndi umunyarwanda

This analysis identifies three time periods where different versions of masculinity are expressed: the early stages of the genocide, where a predominantly warrior/military identity persisted; later stages of the genocide, during which men became aware of their vulnerability and the extent of the genocide; and the post-genocide period, in which masculinity has been rebuilt through the ideology of ndi umunyarwanda, the notion of Rwandanness.

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The role of women in reconciliation and peace building in Rwanda: Ten years after genocide 1994-2004

This study on the role of women in reconciliation and peace building in Rwanda will contributes to critical analysis in understanding the unique potential Rwandan women have and the challenges they face in their endeavours to contribute to national reconciliation and peace building and enable the National Unity and Reconciliation Commission to mainstream gender in its policies, programmes and future activities.

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Restorative justice for the girl child in post-conflict Rwanda

The hypothesis of this paper is that the sexual violence suffered by girl child during the genocide can be seen as emblematic of a general pattern of sexual discrimination in Rwandan society which was unleashed by the exacerbation of the ethnic conflict. The article studies the status of the girl child in international law and examines her status in Rwanda before and during the genocide, as well as in the transitional or post-conflict society she dwells in today. It also provides recommendations for her healing through a “childered” and gendered approach to recovery by establishing a restorative paradigm in terms of safety, remembrance, and reconnection.

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Women After the Rwandan Genocide : Making the Most of Survival

This article is about women survivors in Rwanda. Many of them survived only as captives, subjected to rape and torture, while others were permitted to go free. After the genocide against the Tutsi, traditional cultural restrictions on women working in certain occupations, having access to bank accounts and owning or inheriting land were largely abandoned. The paper also highlights how women have dealt with post-traumatic stress disorder and been involved in the reconciliation process especially because “they understand the importance of raising children in a stable, safe environment”.

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Rape as Genocide: Bangladesh, the Former Yugoslavia, and Rwanda

According to the 1948 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, “…deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part” constitute genocide. However, this Convention does not explicitly state that sexual violence is a crime of genocide. This paper suggests that the convention should be expanded to include mass rape, regardless of whether the victims are raped on the basis of racial/ethnic, national, or religious identity.

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Genocidal Gender and Sexual Violence: The legacy of the ICTR, Rwanda’s ordinary courts and gacaca courts

This book tackles an important and highly topical issue: examining how the experiences of victims of genocidal gender and sexual violence have been addressed on a theoretical and practical level. The book investigates the contribution of feminist legal theories in naming and addressing gender and sexual violence. It questions the legacy of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, as well as Rwanda’s domestic judicial initiatives from the perspective of the complex realities of victims’ experiences. The central focus is the question as to whether the genocidal character of gender and sexual violence in the case of Rwanda has been theorized and judged as such.

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Rwandan Women Rising

Swanee Hunt shares the stories of some seventy women—heralded activists and unsung heroes alike—who overcame unfathomable brutality, unrecoverable loss, and unending challenges to rebuild Rwandan society. These women’s accomplishments provide important lessons for policy makers and activists who are working toward equality elsewhere in Africa and other postconflict societies. Their stories demonstrate that the best way to reduce suffering and to prevent and end conflicts is to elevate the status of women throughout the world.

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Yoga helps victims of genocide and sexual violence

Yoga instructor and genocide survivor Mediatrice Uwingabire is only too aware of the benefits of taking up yoga. She joined a yoga group in 2008 and in six months she started witnessing changes in her life.
“Due to the consequences of genocide, I used to have a lot of anger and resentment,” Uwingabire explains after the yoga class. “But I started doing yoga, I slowly started healing internally, dealing with my anger and I loved it so much and now I feel I am a very smart person. Physically I also got healed.”

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Rwandan Women Rising: A Model for a More Inclusive Democracy?

“I saw what happened [in Bosnia] when zero women were involved [in the peace process]. The settlement was not a success; the country of Bosnia is still frozen, politically and economically.” That’s why, Hunt explains, having women centrally involved in post-conflict societies is critical to the success of rebuilding efforts. Looking at Rwanda “from the perspective of having worked with women leaders in sixty countries for more than two decades,” she writes in Rwandan Women Rising, “I’ve become convinced that the best way to reduce suffering and to prevent, end, and stabilize conflicts is to elevate women.”

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Women and peace building : a contextual approach to the Fourth Gospel and its challenge to women in Post Genocide Rwanda

This work is a contextual study of five selected biblical texts from the Fourth Gospel: John 2:1-12 and John 19:25-29; John 4:1-42; John 11:1-12:1-11 and John 18:15-17. Its aim is to read the selected texts with a Rwandan woman’s eyes, focusing on her peacemaking role and her potential as an agent of reconciliation. It is motivated by the context of the Rwandan situation during and after the catastrophic genocide of 1994. This work seeks to open the eyes of Rwandan women toward the role of peacemaking and unity-building by using a combined approach to conflict resolution; application of some theories in the domain of sociology, as well as the contextual biblical approach.

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The effectiveness of re-integration of female ex-combatants : Rwanda as a case study

The disarmament, demobilization, reintegration and reinsertion of ex-combatants generally and female ex-combatants specifically constitute one of the most fundamental activities in the 1994 post-genocide and war period in Rwanda. To ensure a better linkage between reinsertion and reintegration contributing to the sustainability of the identity transformation of female ex-combatants, during the planning of reinsertion assistance overall socioeconomic dynamics and the challenge of poverty are factored in as key variables to minimize resentment and marginalisation of broader war-affected communities.

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The role of the Rwandan Presbyterian Church in women’s empowerment : a case study of the Agaseke Project in Ruyumba parish

The Presbyterian Church has taken initiatives to empower women who live in vulnerable contexts due to the consequences of genocide. Through training in various seminars and workshops the Church has contributed to the social transformation of Ruyumba Parish in Rwanda. The research question of this study was to assess in what ways the Presbyterian Church in Rwanda has responded to women’s empowerment through the Agaseke Project in Ruyumba Parish.

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Christian response to human need : a case study of ministry by Christian NGOs to genocide widows in Kigali-Ville Province-Rwanda

This work is a Case Study, which seeks to investigate the role of Christian Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in responding to the needs of genocide widows residing in Kigali-Ville province-Rwanda. The study thus aims to assess efforts of the above-cited Christian NGOs and highlights their success and shortcomings in the light of a Christian model of understanding and responding to human needs. The investigation also surveys the background to the genocide.

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Gender Analysis for Sustainable Livelihoods and Participatory Governance in Rwanda

This report analyses the gender differences in Rwanda and explores why these differences exist and what they mean for sustainable livelihoods and participatory governance. The report includes an analysis of the legal and policy framework for gender equality and the empowerment of women, an analysis of secondary data and insights from qualitative research with key informants and women and men in Rwanda.

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Genocide Lives in Us: Women, Memory, and Silence in Rwanda

The book provides a unique grassroots perspective on a postconflict society. Anthropologist Jennie E. Burnet relates with sensitivity the heart-wrenching survival stories of ordinary Rwandan women and uncovers political and historical themes in their personal narratives. She shows that women’s leading role in Rwanda’s renaissance resulted from several factors: the dire postgenocide situation that forced women into new roles; advocacy by the Rwandan women’s movement; and the inclusion of women in the postgenocide government.

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Empower people to counter violent extremism – First Lady

During the 4th World Forum on Intercultural Dialogue High Level Meeting held in Baku, Azerbaijan, the First Lady of Rwanda addressed the topic of “Countering Violent Extremism through Girls’ Education.” She said that empowering citizens irrespective of gender, race, religion and other barriers will help in countering violent extremism in the world.

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Children of genocidal rape left out in support programmes

During the 1994 genocide against the Tutsi, perpetrators used rape as a weapon. As a result, about 20,000 children were conceived and born the following year. According to policies in place, since they were born after December 31 1994, they are not considered as victims of genocide. The article argues that these children need more support from the government and non-government organisations and policies that address their issues need to be formulated.

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Women, Religion and Peacebuilding Illuminating the Unseen

This book examines the obstacles and opportunities that women religious peacebuilders face as they navigate both the complex conflicts they are seeking to resolve and the power dynamics in the insti­tutions they must deal with in order to accomplish their goals. It shows how women determined to work for peace have faced these obstacles in ingenious ways—suggesting, by example, ways that religious and secular organiza­tions might better include them in larger peacebuilding campaigns and make those campaigns more effective in ending conflict.

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Rwanda: The Impact of Women Legislators on Policy Outcomes Affecting Children and Families

Rwanda’s parliament has nearly equal representation of men and women in its lower house which is a unique feature considering women constitute only 16.6% of parliaments worldwide. This paper examines the effect of gender on parliamentarians’ attitudes, and investigates the impact of women parliamentarians on policies related to children and families, specifically with regard to the development of legislation, oversight of the executive, and influence on the national budget.

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Prosecuting Sexual Violence in the Ad Hoc International Criminal Tribunals for Rwanda and the Former Yugoslavia

This paper explores the extent to which these tribunals are making individuals accountable for the widespread sexual violence against women and girls that often (if not always) occurs in times of armed conflict and genocide. In particular, the paper tries to assess the extent to which feminist hopes for justice for women victims of sexual violence have been met by the Tribunals.

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Women and the Rwanda Genocide

This paper shows that men and women who participated in the Rwanda genocide were actually on equal playing ground. In a time of complete chaos, where civilization is broken down and morals no longer exist, women break free of the chains of expectations and responsibility. During the genocide, males and females had morphed into one sex and this sex can be classified as “monster robots.” They went from male and female to conducting monstrous acts and did it in a robotic way because they were ordered to and did this without emotion and consciousness.

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Women in Conflict and Peace

Drawing on case studies from Afghanistan, Myanmar, the Philippines and Rwanda, this publication analyzes the impact of women on intrastate conflict and peace-building. It also seeks to answer questions like; What roles can women from marginalized communities play in conflict, peace-making and democratization? Which factors lie behind their involvement in armed conflict? What are the consequences of women’s inclusion and exclusion from peace-building activities?

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The Causes of Violence after the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda

Even after genocide, violence continues raging among the Rwandan population. Apart from community violence, there exists domestic violence, the scale of which is sometimes worrying mostly with regard to rape of wives by their husbands, child sexual defilement rape of girls and of domestic workers and infanticide. This paper seeks to find out the causes of these acts of injustice, and their tentative solutions that could be used as a tool of conflict resolution in Rwanda.

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Assessment of the determinants of women’s access to finance in Rwanda

Access to finance is critical for sustainable economic growth and social development for any human society. In Rwanda, 65.6% of women are financially underserved according to World Bank in 2012. This paper therefore seeks to find out the factors that govern access to finance to women in Rwanda and the strategies best fit towards the decrease of financial exclusion.

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