This book offers an in-depth study of posttraumatic growth in the testimonies of the men and women who survived, highlighting the ways in which they were able to build a new, and often enhanced, way of life. In so doing, the author advocates a new reading of trauma: one that recognises not just the negative, but also the positive responses to traumatic experiences, through an analysis of testimonies recorded in Kinyarwanda by the Genocide Archive of Rwanda.
This book gathers previously unpublished testimonies from individuals who lived through the genocide against the Tutsi in 1994. Their stories do not simply paint a picture of lives left destroyed and damaged; they also demonstrate healing relationships, personal growth, forgiveness and reconciliation. Through the lens of positive psychology, the book presents a range of perspectives on what happened in Rwanda in 1994 and shows how people have been changed by their experience of genocide.
This book examines the project undertaken by the post-genocide government to shape the collective memory of the Rwandan population, both through political and judicial reforms but also in public commemorations and memorials. Drawing on over two decades of field research in Rwanda, the author uses surveys and comparative local case studies to explore Rwanda’s response both at a governmental and local level.
Poetic and deeply moving, “God Sleeps in Rwanda “shows us how the lessons of Rwanda can prevent future tragedies from happening all over the world. Readers will be inspired by the eloquence and wisdom of a man who has every right to be bitter and hateful but chooses instead to live a life of love, compassion, and forgiveness.
A “must have” for all those thinking, planning, conducting, and studying peace education programs, it is intended for scholars, students, and researchers interested in peace and conflict resolution in higher education and volunteer and public organizations. Its cross-disciplinary approach will appeal to those in social and political psychology, communication, education, religion, political science, sociology, and philosophy.
This book questions the conventional wisdom that education builds peace by exploring the ways in which ordinary schooling can contribute to intergroup conflict. Based on fieldwork and comparative historical analysis of Rwanda, it argues that from the colonial period to the genocide, schooling was a key instrument of the state in contributing to the construction, awareness, collectivization, and inequality of ethnic groups in Rwanda.
When human beings are at their worst, as they most certainly were in Rwanda during the 1994 genocide the world needs the institutions of journalism and the media to be at their best. Sadly, in Rwanda, the media fell short. Media and Mass atrocity revisits the case of Rwanda but also examines how the connection between media and mass atrocity has been shaped by the dramatic rise of social media.
In this book, the author examines how Rwandans navigated the combination of harmony and punishment in grassroots courts purportedly designed to rebuild the social fabric in the wake of the 1994 genocide. Post-genocide Rwandan officials developed new local courts supposedly modelled on traditional practices of dispute resolution as part of a broader national policy of unity and reconciliation.
While some agree with the current government’s view of history, others greatly disagree, citing that ethnic identities were crafted long before colonial rule. Fegley attempts to add to the scholarly literature by examining the aggregate Rwandan history to address the formation of ethnic identities. Additionally, the author examines how current Rwanda understands its history in terms of national unity and justice after the 1994 genocide.
The author explores the sources of indigenous identification in Africa and its legal and political implications. Noting the limitations of systematic and discursive, as opposed to activist, studies, it questions the appropriateness of this framework in efforts aimed at empowering claimant communities in inherently multiethnic African countries and adopts an interdisciplinary approach in order to capture the indigenous rights phenomenon in Africa.
Focusing on the twentieth century, this collection of essays offers an up-to-date, comprehensive history and analysis of multiple cases of genocide and genocidal acts. The book contains studies of the Armenian genocide; the victims of Stalinist terror; the Holocaust; and Imperial Japan. Contributors explore colonialism and address the fate of the indigenous peoples in Africa, North America, and Australia. In addition, extensive coverage of the post-1945 period includes the atrocities in the former Yugoslavia, Bali, Cambodia, Ethiopia, Rwanda, East Timor, and Guatemala.
The author reviews theory and research on a sampling of loss and trauma phenomena. The book also discusses relevant therapy approaches and emphasizes a story-telling approach to coping with major loss. Focusing on many of the most challenging types of human loss and trauma, the book contains scores of stories of people confronting stress and of the courage displayed by so many in the face of profound loss in their personal lives.
The author offers a wide-ranging and integrated account of the many manifestations of violence in society. He examines violent behaviour and its meanings in contemporary culture and throughout history. Introducing the major theoretical debates, the book examines different levels of violence – interpersonal, institutional and collective – and different forms of violence – such as racist crime, homophobic crime and genocide. It provides readers with a succinct and comprehensive overview of its nature and effects, and the solutions and conflict resolutions involved in responses to violence.
In this epic history of extermination and survival, Timothy Snyder presents a new explanation of the great atrocity of the twentieth century, and reveals the risks that we face in the twenty-first. Based on new sources from eastern Europe and forgotten testimonies from Jewish survivors, Black Earth recounts the mass murder of the Jews as an event that is still close to us, more comprehensible than we would like to think, and thus all the more terrifying.
The Second World Wars examines how combat unfolded in the air, at sea, and on land to show how distinct conflicts among disparate combatants coalesced into one interconnected global war. Drawing on 3,000 years of military history, Victor Davis Hanson argues that despite its novel industrial barbarity, neither the war’s origins nor its geography were unusual. Nor was its ultimate outcome surprising. The Axis powers were well prepared to win limited border conflicts, but once they blundered into global war, they had no hope of victory.
This book examines the main episodes in the history of genocide from the beginning of human history to the present. Norman lucidly shows that genocide both changes over time, depending on the character of major historical periods, and remains the same in many of its murderous dynamics. He examines cases of genocide as distinct episodes of mass violence, but also in historical connection with earlier episodes. He argues that genocide can also involve the elimination of targeted social and political groups, providing an insightful analysis of communist and anti-communist genocide.
The book is designed as a text for upper-undergraduate and graduate students, as well as a primer for non-specialists and general readers interested in learning about one of humanity’s enduring blights. Written in clear and lively prose, liberally sprinkled with over 100 illustrations and maps, and including personal testimonies from genocide survivors, Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction has established itself as the core textbook of the new generation of genocide scholarship
The Human Rights Paradox is the first book to fully embrace this contradiction and reframe human rights as history, contemporary social advocacy, and future prospect. In case studies that span Africa, Latin America, South and Southeast Asia, and the United States, contributors carefully illuminate how social actors create the imperative of human rights through relationships whose entanglements of the global and the local are so profound that one cannot exist apart from the other.
The author describes these kingdoms’ complex social and political organisation and analyses how German, British, and Belgian colonisers not only transformed and exploited the existing power structures, but also projected their own racial categories onto them. He shows how the independent states of the postcolonial era, in particular Burundi, Rwanda, and Uganda, have been trapped by their colonial and precolonial legacies, especially by the racial rewriting of the latter by the former.
The book examines the dysfunctional incentives under which the continent’s political and economic elites typically operate and offers a new way of thinking about Africa’s development dilemmas and the policy options for addressing them. Weak states, personal rule and aid dependence, argue the authors, combine to create deep disincentives to development. Most often, these negative structural features are sustained by the nature of Africa’s interaction with the rest of the international system; thus, the cure must come from a radical restructuring of that relationship.
In “Instigation to Crimes Against Humanity The Flawed Jurisprudence of the Trial and Appeal Chambers of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR),” the author critiques the jurisprudence of the ICTR on instigation to crimes against humanity under Article 6(1).
Mu ITORA RYA KOMINI haravugwamo imirongo migari ikurikira:
-Inyigisho ziyobora itegura ry’abakandida n’iyamamaza ryabo!
– Icyo urumuri rwa demokrasi ruvuga!
– Abatowe batorewe iki?
– Umuco w’itora muri demokrasi!
– Révolution ya 59 ntirarangira!
– Ibiranga umuparmehutu w’ukuri!
– Tugereranye umuco wa Demukarasi M.D.R Parmehutu yatuzaniye n’uw’ubuhake yadukuyemo.
– Itangazo rya Perezida wa M.D.R Parmehutu ryerekeye itora rya komini!
The book is a powerful exploration of the literary response to the 1994 genocide against the Tutsi in Rwanda. It explores writings from and about witnesses, survivors and perpetrators. It is an interdisciplinary study that will appeal to scholars in French and Francophone Studies and African Studies.
The book is Based on a PhD thesis that won the British International History Group thesis prize 2013 – described as excellent by the judges. It provides a comprehensive review of the British response to the genocide against the Tutsi and gives an insight into the foreign policy of the John Major government. It uses the detailed case study of Rwanda to explore British responses to overseas crises more generally (including Libya and Syria); particularly useful to students looking to understand practical foreign policy making.
Straus provides substantial new evidence about local patterns of violence, using original research-including the most comprehensive surveys yet undertaken among convicted perpetrators to assess competing theories about the causes and dynamics of the genocide. Current interpretations stress three main causes for the genocide: ethnic identity, ideology, and mass-media indoctrination (in particular the influence of hate radio). Straus emphasizes fear and intra-ethnic intimidation as the primary drivers of the violence.
Based on a four-country project, this book discusses: changes in social capital due to conditions of conflict; the interaction between social capital and conflict; and methods for civil society, government, and international actors to nurture social capital for conflict prevention rehabilitation and reconciliation measures. The types of conflict experienced, definitions and indicators of social capital, and study conclusions are compared. In the final section, recommendations for social policy and practices emerging from these studies are presented.
The book comprehensively analyzes the full range of the transitional justice processes undertaken for the genocide against the Tutsi. Drawing on the author’s extensive professional experience as the principal justice policy maker and the leading law enforcement officer in Rwanda from 1996-2003, the book provides an in-depth analysis of the social, political and legal challenges faced by Rwanda in the aftermath of the genocide and the aspirations and legacy of transitional justice. The book explores the role played by the accountability processes not just in pursuing accountability but also in shaping the reconstruction of Rwanda’s institutions of democratic governance and political reconciliation.
This book is aimed at national bodies seeking to employ traditional justice mechanisms, and at external agencies supporting such processes. It is based on the findings of a comparative study examining the role played by traditional justice mechanisms in dealing with the legacy of violent conflict in Africa. It focuses on five countries—Burundi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Sierra Leone and Uganda—that are used as the basis for outlining conclusions and options for future policy development in the related areas of post-conflict reconstruction, democracy building and development.
Part of the ongoing search for sustainable peace, this handbook highlights the invaluable contributions of people working in the field. The authors clarify how fieldworkers fit into the overall peacebuilding process, providing details of the most effective practices and offering guidelines for preparing for the field.
If you are a survivor of sexual assault, you may be suffering from symptoms of depression, substance abuse, an eating disorder, panic and anxiety, or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This book provides an effective framework in which you can heal. The author helps victims acknowledge and learn to manage the emotional pain caused by the trauma of sexual assault, trauma expert Aphrodite Matsakis offers help for coping with the reality of this experience and dealing with the aftermath of conflicting and debilitating feelings.
Trauma survivors are often dismayed to find that traumatic events not only shatter their internal sense of well-being, but also leave them withdrawn or isolated. In this book, psychologist Aphrodite Matsakis guides survivors through a process of strengthening existing bonds, building new ones, and ending self-perpetuating cycles of withdrawal and isolation. Step-by-step exercises help you learn how to manage emotions, handle unresolved issues, accept realistic limitations, and find ways to make your relationships a context for healing.
This book examines the transformation of the discourse and praxis of peace, from its early beginnings in the literature on war and power, to the development of intellectual and theoretical discourses of peace, contrasting this with the development of practical approaches to peace, and examining the intellectual and policy evolution regarding peace.
The book is the story of Paul Kagame, a refugee who, after a generation of exile, found his way home. It talks about President Kagame, who strives to make Rwanda the first middle-income country in Africa, in a single generation. In this adventurous tale, learn about Kagame’s early fascination with Che Guevara and James Bond, his years as an intelligence agent, his training in Cuba and the United States, the way he built his secret rebel army, his bloody rebellion, and his outsized ambitions for Rwanda.
In the villages of Nyamata and N’tarama, Hatzfeld interviewed fourteen survivors of the genocide. They speak for those who are no longer alive to speak for themselves; they tell of the deaths of family and friends in the churches and marshes to which they fled, and they attempt to account for the reasons behind the Tutsi extermination. For many of the survivors “life has broken down,” while for others, it has “stopped,” and still others say that it “absolutely must go on.” These voices of courage and resilience exemplify the indomitable human spirit, and they remind us of our own moral responsibility to bear witness to these atrocities and to never forget what can come to pass again.
The book discusses the causes, results, and ramifications of the genocides perpetrated in the 20th century, including, for example, the following: the Armenians in the Ottoman Empire; the Jews, Romani and mentally and physically handicapped during the Holocaust; and such post-Holocaust genocides as those in East Timor, Bangladesh, Cambodia, Iraq, Cambodia and Rwanda. This edition has been fully updated and features new chapters on the ethnic cleansing and genocide in the former Yugoslavia and the mass killing of the Kurds in Iraq.
The book is light in tone, often humorous, and entails almost everything you will meet in terms of challenges and general wonderment when embarking on a surreal journey to Rwanda. It is pretty entertaining. The book is recommended to historians as well as those with an interest in African culture. This book is a must read, especially while travelling to Rwanda with a desire to explore.
In 1996, Clea Koff, a 23-year-old graduate student was sent to Rwanda by the U.N. to work with a small team exhuming victims of the genocide against the Tutsi. The book is a mesmerizing account of her four years of gruelling investigations into these, and other, murderous events – what she found in the Rwandan hills and in Srebrenica; how it affected her; and who went to trial based on evidence she collected – events which transformed her from an idealistic student to a war crimes veteran.
Combining unprecedented analyses of the genocide’s progression and the logistical limitations of humanitarian military intervention, the author reaches a startling conclusion: even if Western leaders had ordered an intervention as soon as they became aware of a nationwide genocide in Rwanda, the intervention forces would have arrived too late to save more than a quarter of the 500,000 Tutsi ultimately killed. Serving as a cautionary message about the limits of humanitarian intervention, the book’s concluding chapters address lessons for the future.
The author shows that the impetus for mass killing usually originates from a relatively small group of powerful leaders and is often carried out without the active support of broader society. Mass killing, in his view, is a brutal political or military strategy designed to accomplish leaders’ most important objectives, counter threats to their power, and solve their most difficult problems. He concludes that attempts to prevent mass killing should focus on disarming and removing from power the leaders and small groups responsible for instigating and organizing the killing.
The author does not deny the importance of ethnicity in the genocide against the Tutsi, but he finds that it operated more as a background condition. Instead, he emphasizes fear and intra-ethnic intimidation as the primary drivers of the violence. A defensive civil war and the assassination of a president created a feeling of acute insecurity. In conclusion, Straus steps back from the particulars of the genocide against the Tutsi to offer a new, dynamic model for understanding other instances of genocide in recent history—the Holocaust, Armenia, Cambodia, the Balkans—and assessing the future likelihood of such events.
Why was the UN a bystander during the Rwandan genocide? Do its sins of omission leave it morally responsible for the hundreds of thousands of dead? Based on his first-hand experiences, archival work, and interviews with many key participants, the author reconstructs the history of the UN’s involvement in Rwanda. Michael argues that United Nation’s indifference was driven not by incompetence or cynicism but rather by reasoned choices cradled by moral considerations.
Based on personal interviews and thorough research, the book returns to the boundary lines of genocide’s wounds and traces the route of reconciliation in the lives of Rwandans—victims, widows, orphans, and perpetrators—whose past and future intersect. We find in these stories how suffering, memory, and identity set up roadblocks to forgiveness, while mediation, truth-telling, restitution, and interdependence create bridges to healing.
The book reveals the extent of the planning of the genocide and its progress country-wide. The book contains the first comprehensive reconstruction of the genocide together with exclusive information about French foreign policy towards Rwanda – the role of its intelligence services and its mercenaries. The author had unique access to files and records that were abandoned by the genocidaires, many of these documents from the previous regime’s department of military intelligence. These documents give a unique insight into the minds of the conspirators and how they determined that genocide and the racist policy that underpinned it should become a part of government policy.
When President Habyarimana’s jet was shot down in April 1994, Rwanda erupted into a hundred-day orgy of killing – which left up to a million dead. Fergal Keane travelled through the country as the genocide was continuing, and his powerful analysis reveals the terrible truth behind the headlines.
Academics, NGOs, the United Nations, and individual nations are focused on the prevention and intervention of genocide. Traditionally, missions to prevent or intervene in genocide have been sporadic and under-resourced. The contributors to this volume consider some of the major stumbling blocks to the avoidance of genocide.
The Geography of Genocide offers a unique analysis of over sixty genocides in world history, explaining why genocides only occur in territorial interiors and never originate from cosmopolitan urban centers.
This book studies the obligation to prevent genocide under international law and more particularly the extent of that obligation under the Genocide Convention and customary international law.
Preventing genocide is not only possible, Dr Hamburg contends, but essential given its high cost in lives, human rights, and international security. Here he maps out numerous practical steps to recognise genocidal conflicts early and stem their tides of violence before they become acute. He also outlines several institutions in place and programs underway at the UN, EU, and NATO devoted to preventing future genocides before they erupt. He draws lessons both from missed opportunities and successful experiences and makes many constructive suggestions about strengthening international institutions, governments, and NGOs for this purpose.
The book examines the decade (1986-97) that brackets the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. This collection of essays is both a narrative of that event and a deep re-examination of the international role in addressing humanitarian issues and complex emergencies. It offers readers a perspective in sharp contrast to the tendency to treat a peace agreement as the end to conflict. This is a detailed effort to make sense of the political crisis, the genocide against the Tutsi and the effects it had on its neighbours.
The author tells the compelling story of what happened during the genocide against the Tutsi. She holds governments to account, showing how individuals could have prevented what was happening and didn’t do so. The book also reveals the unrecognised heroism of those who stayed on during the genocide, volunteer peacekeepers and those who ran emergency medical care. This new edition examines the ongoing impact of the 1948 Genocide Convention and the shock waves Rwanda caused around the world.
Jean Patrick dreams of running in the Olympics, and with gruelling training he soon beats a world qualifying time. But his chances of success are threatened by the ethnic tensions erupting all around him. When Hutu violence against Tutsis finally crescendos and his homeland Rwanda is wracked by unforgivable atrocities, Jean Patrick, a Tutsi, has no choice but to run for his life abandoning fatherland, family, and the woman he loves. Finding them again will be the race of his life.
In a gripping narrative that examines the power of the press and sheds light on how the media turned tens of thousands of ordinary Rwandans into murderers, the author traces the rise and fall of three media executives — Ferdinand Nahimana, Jean-Bosco Barayagwiza, and Hassan Ngeze. From crime to trial to verdict, Temple-Raston explores the many avenues of justice Rwanda pursued in the decade after the killing. Focusing on the media trial at the United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, she then drops down to the level of the hills, where ordinary Rwandans seek justice and retribution, and examines whether politics in the East African nation has set the stage for renewed violence.
The book concerns Hutu/Tutsi politics and violence since 1959. This emphasis tends to obscure the roots of the problem in the colonial period. Aimable accurately stresses that the Hutu, Tutsi (and Twa) share language, religion, and space, with their identities having been somewhat flexible and based on unequal status. He discusses the European colonials’ racial stereotypes but does not specify the profound impact of European “scientific” racism, which assumed that Tutsi and Hutu were different “races,” with the Hutu born to be forever inferior.
In The Debris of Ham, Aimable argues that while ethnic ideology provided the materials for the relentless propaganda against the Tutsi and the Hutu of the political opposition in 1990-1994, in a parallel mode, regional politics provided the sine qua non that made the 1994 genocide against the Tutsi possible. This book investigates the juxtaposition of ethnicity and regionalism in Rwandan politics, and the unfolding of the worst mass murder at the end of the twentieth century.
Blessed with natural beauty and rich vegetation, Rwanda is often called the “land of a thousand hills”. Rwandans possess a centric view of the world, believing that God favors Rwanda and that Rwanda means “the universe.” However, this idyllic view of Rwanda sharply contrasts with the sad history of ethnic strife that has unfolded in the country since the 1950s and in 1994. This book through its chronology, introductory essays, appendixes, maps, bibliography, and hundreds of cross-referenced dictionary entries on important persons, places, events, and institutions and significant political, economic, social, and cultural aspects, provides an important reference on this central African country.
Revolutions are often seen in terms of a spontaneous burst of intense political activity; less attention usually is given to the structures, processes, and perceptions that make such activity possible. This innovative book examines such long-term transformations as they relate to the revolution in the Central African nation of Rwanda, which culminated in its independence in July 1962. It explores the interaction of central and local power bases and delineates the transformations introduced into the system by German and Belgian colonial policies that consciously sought to bolster one ethnic group as agents of colonial administration.
A Rwandan proverb says “Defeat is the only bad news.” For Rwandans living under colonial rule, winning called not only for armed confrontation, but also for a battle of wits—and not only with foreigners, but also with each other. Alison recounts the ambitions, strategies, and intrigues of an African royal court under Yuhi Musinga, the Rwandan ruler from 1896 to 1931. These were turbulent years for Rwanda, when first Germany and then Belgium pursued an aggressive plan of colonization there.
Based on interviews carried out for doctoral research in Rwanda 1998 and in Europe 1999, Nigel Eltringham deals with the discourse on responsibility for the 1994 genocide in Rwanda and on the binary construction of Rwandan society. He focuses on six debates that prove to be crucial for the understanding of how absolutist ways of picturing Rwandan society made the genocide possible, and he dedicates a chapter to each of these debates.
This book is a unique account of the UN Secretary-General’s Special Representative in Rwanda in the mid-1990s. Shaharyar M. Khan’s tenure began in the immediate aftermath of the downing of President Habarimana’s plane on April 6, 1994 and the massacres that followed. Khan details his encounters with soldiers and politicians, victims and survivors, perpetrators of the massacres, and humanitarian relief efforts. This book reveals how the UN works on the ground and at headquarters.
Clemantine Wamariya was six years old when the genocide against the Tutsi took place. She shares her story from then until when she found asylum in the United States. Raw, urgent, yet disarmingly beautiful, The Girl Who Smiled Beads captures the true costs and aftershocks of war: what is forever lost, what can be repaired, the fragility and importance of memory, the faith that one can learn, again, to love oneself, even with deep scars.
The book is a major artistic contribution to the study of the history and effects of genocide. The scripts deal with the destruction of four targeted populations: Armenians in Lorne Shirinian’s Exile in the Cradle, Cambodians in Catherine Filloux’s Silence of God, Bosnian Muslims in Kitty Felde’s A Patch of Earth, and Rwandan Tutsis in Erik Ehn’s Maria Kizito. Taken together, these four plays erase the boundaries of theatrical realism to present stories that probe the actions of the perpetrators and the suffering of their victims.
As a foreign correspondent, Scott witnessed firsthand Somalia’s descent into war and its battle against US troops, the spiritual degeneration of Sudan’s Holy War, and one of the most horrific events of the last half century: the genocide in Rwanda. He brings these events together for the first time to record a collapse that has had an impact far beyond African borders. Filled with the dust, sweat and powerful detail of real-life, the book graphically illustrates how preventive action and a better understanding of Africa – especially by the US – could have averted much suffering.
The author offers a landmark book on our attempts to heal after such large-scale tragedy. Writing with informed, searching prose of the extraordinary drama of the truth commissions in Argentina, East Germany, and most notably South Africa; war-crime prosecutions in Nuremberg and Bosnia; and reparations in America, Minow looks at the strategies and results of these riveting national experiments in justice and healing.
The book represents a unique blend of political and legal theory, one that focuses on the double-edged role of memory in fueling cycles of hatred and maintaining justice and personal integrity. Its centerpiece comprises three penetrating essays by Minow. She argues that innovative legal institutions and practices, such as truth commissions and civil damage actions against groups that sponsor hate, often work better than more conventional criminal proceedings and sanctions. Minow also calls for more sustained attention to the underlying dynamics of violence.
The book examines calls for a truth commission to redress the brutal war during the breakup of the former Yugoslavia, the decades-long armed conflict in Colombia, and US detention policies in the War on Terror. In so doing, it argues that transitional justice is an idea around which a loosely structured movement emerged and professionalized, making truth commissions a standard response to mass violence. It reveals how the malleability of transitional justice and truth commissions is both an asset and a liability for those hoping to ensure accountability, improve survivor well-being, and prevent future violence.
This book is the first volume to approach the politically sensitive subject of post-conflict or post-authoritarian justice from a theoretical perspective. It combines contributions from distinguished scholars and practitioners as well as from emerging academics from different disciplines and provides an overview of conceptual approaches to the field. The volume seeks to refine our understanding of transitional justice by exploring often unarticulated assumptions that guide discourse and practice.
The author shares his life struggles, how he commemorated his lost family and the way they died, searching if any relatives survived, and working to earn everyday life. This struggle took long but as time went on, he started gaining hope for the future. First, he started thinking beyond himself, then about helping his fellow genocide survivors and contributing to the reconstruction of the country. His belief in God generated love and brought him to forgive people who killed his family.
The author shares her own experience of her country’s past. She starts her memoir with her idyllic childhood in the Land of a Thousand Hills with her large, happy family before the genocide; but soon, their own Hutu-led government and military turns against them when she is pregnant. Henriette must endure the Rwandan Genocide as a Tutsi woman, and protect her family in the process. Witnessing her family’s degradation and experiencing her own torture, she finds strength in God to continue fighting for her and her unborn daughter’s lives.
Nearly two decades after Rwanda’s horrific genocide, the country has been transformed. High rises are going up in the capital city of Kigali; a newly established stock exchange is attracting investors; and the economy is transitioning from subsistence agriculture to information and communication technology. In Rwanda, Inc. they look at the key factors that allowed this tiny country to beat the odds―including Rwanda’s efforts to encourage private sector development and foster entrepreneurship, and how Kagame’s unique leadership approach led to gains in health, education, and food sustainability.
Ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda mu mateka yabo. Igice cya mbere: Ubukoroni n’Mcakubiri mu Rwanda.
Muri iki gitabo, umwanditsi agaragaza imibanire y’Abanyarwanda mbere y’uko abazungu baza mu Rwanda, uko iyo mibanire myiza yaje kugenda ihinduka mibi buhoro buhoro bitewe n’imiyoborere mibi y’ubukoroni ndetse n’uburyo Abatutsi batangiye kwirukanwa mu Rwanda. Iki gitabo gisoza kivuga uko abakoroni basizeho Repubulika ya mbere yagombaga gukomeza gukora ku nyungu zabo.
The narrative takes the reader on a journey from the days the world and Rwanda discovered each other back to colonial period when pseudoscientific ideas about race put the nation on a highway bound for the 1994 genocide. Urged on by the desire to find a letter her brother sent her, Mushikiwabo rummages into their farm childhood, and into family corners alternately dark, loving, and humorous. She searches for stray mementos of the lost, then for their roots. What she finds is that and more—hints, roots, of the 1994 crime that killed her family.
This book tackles an important and highly topical issue: examining how the experiences of victims of genocidal gender and sexual violence have been addressed on a theoretical and practical level. The book investigates the contribution of feminist legal theories in naming and addressing gender and sexual violence. It questions the legacy of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, as well as Rwanda’s domestic judicial initiatives from the perspective of the complex realities of victims’ experiences. The central focus is the question as to whether the genocidal character of gender and sexual violence in the case of Rwanda has been theorized and judged as such.
This edited volume brings together critical insights that address the multifaceted problems of governance and democracy in the developing regions with specific reference to Africa. It explores both the externally prescribed and home-grown governance initiatives geared toward democracy and development, and suggests alternative strategies to improve the processes and institutions of governance.
The book takes the reader through a sweeping panorama of Rwanda’s history, from its recent past as a near-failed state to its present as a beacon of hope and successful innovations. Rwanda’s rise from the ashes detailed in this book is the culmination of a visionary and laborious process of rebuilding a nation from the brink of collapse. It is also a story of reconciling a people that had been taught to see each other as enemies. It concludes that the achievements have been possible because the RPF’s development agenda built on power-sharing, consensus-building, gender equality and the primacy of security.
This book shares the story ofAnglican Bishop John Rucyahana; having members of his church and family butchered. John refused to become a part of the systemic hatred. He founded the Sonrise orphanage and school for children orphaned in the genocide, and he now leads reconciliation efforts between his own Tutsi people, the victims of this horrific massacre, and the perpetrators, the Hutus.
Swanee Hunt shares the stories of some seventy women—heralded activists and unsung heroes alike—who overcame unfathomable brutality, unrecoverable loss, and unending challenges to rebuild Rwandan society. These women’s accomplishments provide important lessons for policy makers and activists who are working toward equality elsewhere in Africa and other postconflict societies. Their stories demonstrate that the best way to reduce suffering and to prevent and end conflicts is to elevate the status of women throughout the world.
In Rwanda, 1973 to 1994 the Catholic and Protestant leaders entered into close political relations with the regime of the MRND (Mouvement Revolutionnaire National pour le Developpement), which alienated them from the people of Rwanda when human rights abuses were widespread, culminating in the war in 1990 and the genocide of 1994. If the church’s mission remains that of teaching and evidencing love, justice and righteousness, there is need for it to confess and repent of its failures and complicity in the tragedies.
This is a timely empirical study and review of the Gacaca Courts. Based on the author’s original field work which began in 2003 in Rwanda and which has been updated to the end of 2009, it includes responses from within the Rwandan population. Dr. Clark argues that, despite widespread international scepticism, the Gacaca process has achieved remarkable results in terms of justice and reconciliation, although this has often come at a price, especially the re-traumatisation of many Rwandans who have participated firsthand in hearings.
This volume contributes thoughtful and rigorous research to the fundamental question how to apply truth, justice, reparations and institutional reform to fundamental – and often ancestral – inequalities in each transitional society.
In the last twenty years, the field of transitional justice has gone from being a peripheral concern to an ubiquitous feature of societies recovering from mass conflict or repressive rule. The sprawl of transitional justice, however, has not always produced concepts and practices that are theoretically sound and grounded in the empirical realities of the societies in question. This book takes stock of this burgeoning field and explores the key concerns with current trends in transitional justice.
The authors analyse the political, legal and regional impact of events in post-genocide Rwanda within the broader themes of transitional justice and reconciliation. The book also contains an unprecedented debate between Rwandan President Paul Kagame and René Lemarchand on post-genocide memory and governance in Rwanda, and incorporates chapters from Rwandan academics and practitioners, such as Tom Ndahiro, Solomon Nsabiyera Gasana, and Jean Baptiste Kayigamba – all of whom are also survivors of the 1994 genocide – and draws on their personal experiences.
This volume aims to produce a better understanding of the relationship between tradition and justice in Africa. It presents six contributions of African scholars related to current international discourses on access to justice and human rights and on the localisation of transitional justice. The contributions suggest that access to justice and appropriate, context-specific transitional justice strategies need to consider diversity and legal pluralism. In this sense, they all stress that dialogical approaches are the way forward.
This edited volume sets out to unravel various dimensions of a particular topical question pertaining to minorities and minority protection, which has not been explored yet, more particularly the socio-economic participation of minorities in relation to their right to (respect for) identity. This interrelation and interaction is studied from a multi-disciplinary perspective, spanning a broad range of disciplines, while drawing on a rich variety of case studies covering various corners of the world.
Noncombatants can be accidently or incidentally harmed or their properties destroyed without making that conduct a violation. Since reparation is tied to violations of existing laws of war, victims of lawful incidents (collateral damage) are excluded. This book discursively investigates the basis for this normative discrimination and examines the grounds (moral, legal, and policy) on which reparation to victims of collateral damage could be (un)justifiable.
The book emphasizes how children must be engaged during post-conflict transition. If children are excluded, they may become vulnerable to a continuing cycle of violence, affecting future generations. In contrast, through active involvement in transitions, children and adolescents can be the catalysts for justice, reconciliation, and peace-building within their own families and communities.
Doughty examines how Rwandans navigated the combination of harmony and punishment in grassroots courts purportedly designed to rebuild the social fabric in the wake of the 1994 genocide. Postgenocide Rwandan officials developed new local courts ostensibly modeled on traditional practices of dispute resolution as part of a broader national policy of unity and reconciliation. The three legal forums at the heart of Remediation in Rwanda—genocide courts called inkiko gacaca, mediation committees called comite y’abunzi, and a legal aid clinic—all emphasized mediation.
Since the end of the Cold War, conflict prevention and resolution, peacekeeping and peacebuilding have risen to the top of the international agenda. The fourth edition of this hugely popular text explains the key concepts, charts the development of the field, evaluates successes and failures, and assesses the main current challenges and debates in the second decade of the twenty-first century.
This book explains what religious terrorists and religious peacemakers share in common, what causes them to take different paths in fighting injustice, and how a deeper understanding of religious extremism can and must be integrated more effectively into our thinking about tribal, regional, and international conflict.
The book covers twenty new commissions formed in the last ten years, analyzing new trends, and offering detailed charts that assess the impact of truth commissions and provide comparative information not previously available. Placing the increasing number of truth commissions within the broader expansion in transitional justice, Unspeakable Truths surveys key developments and new thinking in reparations, international justice, healing from trauma, and other areas. The book challenges many widely-held assumptions, based on hundreds of interviews and a sweeping review of the literature.
The book brings a new level of understanding to a set of problems usually considered individually. Herman draws on her own cutting-edge research in domestic violence as well as on the vast literature of combat veterans and victims of political terror, to show the parallels between private terrors such as rape and public traumas such as terrorism. The book puts individual experience in a broader political frame, arguing that psychological trauma can be understood only in a social context.
Fujii argues that ethnic hatred and fear do not satisfactorily explain the mobilization of Rwandans one against another. Fujii’s extensive interviews in Rwandan prisons and two rural communities form the basis for her claim that mass participation in the genocide was not the result of ethnic antagonisms. Rather, the social context of action was critical. Strong group dynamics and established local ties shaped patterns of recruitment for and participation in the genocide.
Scott Straus seeks to explain why and how genocide takes place—and, perhaps more important, how it has been avoided in places where it may have seemed likely or even inevitable. To solve that puzzle, he examines postcolonial Africa, analyzing countries in which genocide occurred and where it could have but did not. Why have there not been other Rwandas? Straus finds that deep-rooted ideologies—how leaders make their nations—shape strategies of violence and are central to what leads to or away from genocide. Other critical factors include the dynamics of war, the role of restraint, and the interaction between national and local actors in the staging of campaigns of large-scale violence.
Susan explores the subject of visual representations of war and violence in our culture today. How does the spectacle of the sufferings of others (via television or newsprint) affect us? Are viewers inured–or incited–to violence by the depiction of cruelty? In Regarding the Pain of Others, Susan Sontag takes a fresh look at the representation of atrocity–from Goya’s The Disasters of War to photographs of the American Civil War, lynchings of blacks in the South, and the Nazi death camps, to contemporary horrific images of Bosnia, Sierra Leone, Rwanda, Israel and Palestine, and New York City on September 11, 2001.
Based on Rwandan government records, the book dissects the deceptive discourse of genocide and shows how ordinary administrative structures and practices were turned into mechanisms of murder. It describes opposition to the killing campaign and how it was broken. In the words of survivors, it relates how they resisted and escaped. Using diplomatic and court documents, the study details the transformation of international indifference into tardy criticism.
Why did Rwanda’s rural Hutus participate so massively, and so personally, in the country’s 1994 genocide of its Tutsi population? Given all that has been written already about this horrific episode, is there still more that can be learned? Answering these questions, Jean-Paul Kimonyo’s social and economic history explores at the deepest level the role both of power relations among Rwanda’s grassroots citizens, political parties, and the state and of socioeconomic factors vs. politically/socially constructed ethnicity.
Le livre analyse les relations entre les mémoires et l’histoire scolaire du Rwanda. L’auteur étudie sept thèmes présentes comme conflictuels dans l’historiographie rwandaise. La manière dont ces thèmes sont présentes dans les manuels d’histoire utilises entre 1962 et 1994 ainsi que les conceptions qu’en ont des Rwandais ayant été, ou non, scolarises constituent la charpente de l’ouvrage. Les resultats de recherches montrent de nombreuses convergences entre les contenus des manuels scolaires et les souvenirs des Rwandais interviewes lors de l’enquête.
The scholars and activists who have contributed to these chapters have taken the obligation to document, analyze, and learn from the events that led to the genocide as well as considered to understand its legacy. The aim is that these efforts should help the world community act to prevent and intervene at all levels to forever assure that such events do not repeat themselves.
The book analyses the political, legal and regional impact of events in post-genocide Rwanda within the themes of transitional justice and reconciliation. It includes chapters from scholars in this field, along with senior government and non-government officials involved in matters related to Rwanda and transitional justice.
The book is a review of the Gacaca Courts which were established in 2001 in Rwanda as an attempt to prosecute suspects involved in the 1994 genocide. Dr. Clark argues that, despite widespread international scepticism, the Gacaca process has achieved remarkable results in terms of justice and reconciliation, although this has often come at a price, especially the re-traumatisation of many Rwandans who have participated firsthand in hearings.
This book documents how some leaders do bring about remarkable reconstruction of their countries using foreign aid, but many other post-conflict leaders fail to do so. Offering a global argument that is the first of its kind, Desha Girod explains that post-conflict leaders are more likely to invest aid in reconstruction when they are desperate for income and thus depend on aid that comes with reconstruction strings attached.